- Defending Others Online: The Influence of Observing Formal and Informal Social Control on One's Willingness to Defend Cyberhate VictimsCostello, Matthew; Hawdon, James; Reichelmann, Ashley V.; Oksanen, Atte; Blaya, Catherine; Llorent, Vicente J.; Räsänen, Pekka; Zych, Izabela (MDPI, 2023-08-02)This paper examines factors correlated with online self-help—an informal form of social control vis-à-vis intervention—upon witnessing a cyberhate attack. Using online surveys from 18- to 26-year-old respondents in the United States, we explore the roles of various types of online and offline formal and informal social control mechanisms on the enactment of self-help through the use of descriptive statistics and ordinal logistic regression. The results of the multivariate analyses indicate that online collective efficacy is positively related to self-help, as is having close ties to individuals and groups offline and online. Formal online social control, however, is not significantly related to engaging in self-help. Other findings demonstrate that personal encounters with cyberhate affect the likelihood that an individual will intervene when witnessing an attack, and that individuals with high levels of empathy are more likely to intervene to assist others. This work indicates that pro-social online behavior is contagious and can potentially foster online spaces in which harmful behaviors, such as propagating cyberhate, are not condoned.
- Understanding the Overlap of Online Offending and Victimization: Using Cluster Analysis to Examine Group DifferencesParti, Katalin; Dearden, Thomas E.; Hawdon, James E. (Routledge, 2022-06)Criminal offending and victimization often overlap in both the virtual and offline worlds. However, scholars are still unsure how the offending-victimization relationship plays out between the online and offline worlds. Using a sample of 2,491 adults, four clusters are discovered: 1) those unlikely to have offended or been victimized, 2) those who had online victimization and offending experiences, 3) Those who have been victimized offline and online, but who are unlikely to have offended, and 4) individuals who were victims both online and offline and offended online. Thus, the offending-victimization overlap may be common, but it is certainly not exclusive.
- Cybercrime: Victimization, Perpetration, and TechniquesHawdon, James E. (Springer, 2021-11-10)The creation of the World Wide Web revolutionized communication. At the turn of the 21st century, roughly 413 million people used the internet (Roser, Ritchie and Ortiz-Ospina 2015). A mere 21 years later, nearly 4.7 billion people, or about 60% of the world’s population, actively use the internet (We Are Social, & DataReportal, & Hootsuite, 2021). The pace of innovation in information technology, from the introduction of email in the 1960s to the rise of multiple social media platforms in the early 2000s to the rise of the Internet of Things (Iot) and 5g, has been astonishing. It is now almost inconceivable to imagine life without access to the internet. Yet the IT revolution, like all technological revolutions, has been a dual-edge sword. Indeed, the internet’s many benefits and drawbacks have been discussed in numerous forums, and these discussions will undoubtedly continue as long as we remain dependent on this technology. This special edition of the American Journal of Criminal Justice contributes to those discussions by considering one of the drawbacks: cybercime...
- Gender, immigration, and school victimizationPeguero, Anthony A. (Virginia Tech. University Libraries, 2012-04)Anthony Peguero speaks about his research on adolescent violence, socialization and marginalization, school bullying, race and ethnicity, and the adaptation of the children immigrants. It is well established that violence can seriously lead to mental health disorders, disrupt interpersonal social relationships, derail educational progress, and negatively impact life-course trajectories for youth. Despite the prevalence and problems associated with youth violence, studies that examine the disparities linked to race and ethnicity, immigration, and gender in relationship to the exposure and consequences of violence for youth are underrepresented and limited. Dr. Peguero's research agenda is focused on addressing the gap in the sociological, criminological, and educational research literature in the pursuit of ameliorating the likelihood of violence, as well as the consequences, for marginalized and vulnerable youth populations. While Dr. Peguero’s work focuses on how violence contributes to social inequalities, this area of research is still in its infancy and future research will continue to incorporate interdisciplinary approaches to further this line of inquiry.