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Research articles, presentations, and other scholarship

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  • Telling the Extension Story: How to Tell a Good Story for Connection & Advocacy
    Haugen, Inga (2024-04-25)
    Storytelling for Connection and Advocacy, telling your personal and your professional Extension stories.
  • Social network interventions to reduce race disparities in living kidney donation: Design and rationale of the friends and family of kidney transplant patients study (FFKTPS)
    Daw, Jonathan; Verdery, Ashton M.; Ortiz, Selena E.; Reed, Rhiannon Deierhoi; Locke, Jayme E.; Redfield III, Robert R.; Kloda, David; Liu, Michel; Mentsch, Heather; Sawinski, Deirdre; Aguilar, Diego; Porter, Nathaniel D.; Roberts, Mary K.; McIntyre, Katie; Reese, Peter P. (Wiley, 2023-07-03)
    Introduction: Racial/ethnic disparities in living donor kidney transplantation (LDKT) are a persistent challenge. Although nearly all directed donations are from members of patients’ social networks, little is known about which social network members take steps toward living kidney donation, which do not, and what mechanisms contribute to racial/ethnic LDKT disparities. Methods: We describe the design and rationale of the Friends and Family of Kidney Transplant Patients Study, a factorial experimental fielding two interventions designed to promote LKD discussions. Participants are kidney transplant candidates at two centers who are interviewed and delivered an intervention by trained center research coordinators. The search intervention advises patients on which social network members are most likely to be LKD contraindication-free; the script intervention advises patients on how to initiate effective LKD discussions. Participants are randomized into four conditions: no intervention, search only, script only, or both search and script. Patients also complete a survey and optionally provide social network member contact information so they can be surveyed directly. This study will seek to enroll 200 transplant candidates. The primary outcome is LDKT receipt. Secondary outcomes include live donor screening and medical evaluations and outcomes. Tertiary outcomes include LDKT self-efficacy, concerns, knowledge, and willingness, measured before and after the interventions. Conclusion: This study will assess the effectiveness of two interventions to promote LKD and ameliorate Black-White disparities. It will also collect unprecedented information on transplant candidates’ social network members, enabling future work to address network member structural barriers to LKD.
  • Designing and Implementing Active Learning with Data
    Porter, Nathaniel D. (2024-02-09)
    Slides for a workshop at the Conference on Higher Education Pedagogy 2024.
  • Cyberattacks and public opinion - The effect of uncertainty in guiding preferences
    Jardine, Eric; Porter, Nathaniel D.; Shandler, Ryan (Sage, 2024-01-30)
    When it comes to cybersecurity incidents – public opinion matters. But how do voters form opinions in the aftermath of cyberattacks that are shrouded in ambiguity? How do people account for the uncertainty inherent in cyberspace to forge preferences following attacks? This article seeks to answer these questions by introducing an uncertainty threshold mechanism predicting the level of attributional certainty required for the public to support economic, diplomatic or military responses following cyberattacks. Using a discrete-choice experimental design with 2025 US respondents, we find lower attributional certainty is associated with less support for retaliation, yet this mechanism is contingent on the suspected identity of the attacker and partisan identity. Diplomatic allies possess a reservoir of good will that amplifies the effect of uncertainty, while rivals are less often given the benefit of the doubt. We demonstrate that uncertainty encourages the use of cognitive schemas to overcome ambiguity, and that people fall back upon pre-existing and politically guided views about the suspected country behind an attack. If the ambiguity surrounding cyberattacks has typically been discussed as an operational and strategic concern, this article shifts the focus of attention to the human level and positions the mass public as a forgotten yet important party during cyber conflict.
  • Relationships, race/ethnicity, gender, age, and living kidney donation evaluation willingness
    Daw, Jonathan; Roberts, Mary K.; Salim, Zarmeen; Porter, Nathaniel D.; Verdery, Ashton M.; Ortiz, Selena E. (Elsevier, 2024-04)
    Racial/ethnic and gender disparities in living donor kidney transplantation are large and persistent but incompletely explained. One previously unexplored potential contributor to these disparities is differential willingness to donate to recipients in specific relationships such as children, parents, and friends. We collected and analyzed data from an online sample featuring an experimental vignette in which respondents were asked to rate their willingness to donate to a randomly chosen member of their family or social network. Results show very large differences in respondents' willingness to donate to recipients with different relationships to them, favoring children, spouses/partners, siblings, and parents, and disfavoring friends, aunts/uncles, and coworkers. Evidence suggesting an interactive effect between relationship, respondent race/ethnicity, respondent or recipient gender, was limited to a few cases. At the p < 0.05 level, the parent-recipient gender interaction was statistically significant, favoring mothers over fathers, as was other/multiracial respondents' greater willingness to donate to friends compared to Whites. Additionally, other interactions were significant at the p < 0.10 level, such as Hispanics' and women's higher willingness to donate to parents compared to Whites and men respectively, women's lower willingness to donate to friends compared to men, and Blacks' greater willingness to donate to coworkers than Whites. We also examined differences by age and found that older respondents were less willing to donate to recipients other than their parents. Together these results suggest that differential willingness to donate by relationship group may be a moderately important factor in understanding racial/ethnic and gender disparities in living donor kidney transplantation.
  • New Frontiers: Opportunities and Gaps in Leadership Professional Development For Medical/Health Sciences Library Directors and Managers
    Hoch, Jackson (2024-05-20)
    Join this enlightening in-person RTI poster session where leadership professional development gaps within libraries are explored! The literature review uncovered key insights, informing a tailored survey for leaders and managers across all levels in health sciences and medical libraries. Leveraging MLA, we invite participation in our survey to pinpoint opportunities and gaps. Using text analysis from the open-ended questions and the other survey results, we'll distill themes and craft actionable recommendations as research continues to address this research gap, fostering the potential growth of current and future leaders in the field.
  • Implementation of Augmented Reality in Landscape Architectural Education: Enhancing Understanding of Three-Dimensional Space
    Ha, Jaeyoung; Ogle, J. Todd; Lekhon Alam, M. M. (Wichmann Verlag, 2024-05-30)
    While there is a growing interest in the application of immersive visualization technology in design work, much less is known about its role in design education. This study explores how augmented reality (AR) serves as an effective tool for understanding students' design work within three-dimensional space. In a landscape design studio course, students were tasked with producing 3D models for their site designs as a part of the design studio outcome. These 3D models were projected onto the actual sites using an AR device, `followed by semi-structured interviews. The results of this study indicated that AR can contribute to the understanding of design proposals by improving spatial awareness and relationships within urban environments. Additionally, also envisioned that AR could be an effective communication tool for conveying their design ideas and concepts.
  • Filling the Gap: Educating Community Partners on Good Preservation Practices
    Kinnaman, Alex (2023-11-16)
    As digital preservationists we can find it a challenge to communicate and advocate best practices to our own colleagues familiar with digital assets and their risk of obsolescence. What may be even more of a challenge is to communicate good or at least “better than nothing” practices to those in the community we support. Virginia Tech University Libraries recently completed an IMLS Community Catalyst grant to build a community-managed community archive governed by a formal community advisory board to determine what collections are most fitting for the southwest Virginia region and have autonomy over how their collections are represented. This archive is designed to serve as a second access point to their materials in addition to locally managed access points and Virginia Tech never takes ownership of the physical items. Now that this advisory board has formed, we move to an implementation phase to both ingest collections into the VTUL digital library, and begin providing the support and guidance for them to apply digital preservation strategies in their own workflows. This presentation will touch briefly on the context provided in this proposal and will focus on the second part of implementation - educating community partners on improving their local digital practices. I will present approaches for advising the community with minimal jargon that employ the resources available to them as optimally as possible to establish good preservation practices locally. This presentation aligns with the conference theme of Collaboration, particularly in how we best center the needs of the communities we serve.
  • Creating a Custom Queueing System for a Makerspace Using Web Technologies
    Bradley, Jonathan (Code4Lib, 2023-01-20)
    This article details the changes made to the queueing system used by Virginia Tech University Libraries’ 3D Design Studio as the space was decommissioned and reabsorbed into the new Prototyping Studio makerspace. This new service, with its greatly expanded machine and tool offerings, required a revamp of the underlying data structure and was an opportunity to rethink the React and Electron app used previously in order to make the queue more maintainable and easier to deploy moving forward. The new Prototyping Queue application utilizes modular design and auto building forms and queues in order to improve the upgradeability of the app. We also moved away from using React and Electron and made a web app that loads from the local filesystem of the computer in the studio and runs on the Svelte framework with IBM’s Carbon Design components to build out functionality with the frontend. The deployment process was also streamlined, now relying on git and Windows Batch scripts to automate updating the app as changes are committed to the repository.
  • Throwing It All at the Wall: Building a Comprehensive Technology and Research Equipment Lending Collection
    Bradley, Jonathan; Rogers, Alice (Association of College & Research Libraries, 2023-09-28)
    Technology is an ongoing need for instructors, students, staff, and researchers at institutions of higher education. Many academic departments attempt to solve needs on a case-by-case basis, purchasing and providing equipment to the specific groups of people they serve. Although these solutions work in the short term, they do not address widespread needs across universities or long-term use of the equipment beyond a given project. As modern academic libraries expand collections and services, we are poised to more efficiently provide access to expensive technology to our institutions due to our centralized nature. To meet this need, the Studios Network of Virginia Tech University Libraries developed the Studios Technology Lending Desk (STLD). In this chapter, we discuss how we have shaped our acquisition, support, and outreach methods to create a service that provides Virginia Tech’s faculty, staff, and students with technology to pursue a variety of creative endeavors within their fields of study and beyond. In sharing our experiences and the ethos behind choices we have made, we hope to inspire other programs to establish or extend their lending services to include technology that supports creators at their libraries.
  • Using Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) and Google Sheets to Build a Visual Tool Location Web App
    Bradley, Jonathan (2023-12-04)
    At the University Libraries at Virginia Tech, we recently built a visual kiosk web app for helping patrons in our makerspace locate the tools they need and assist our staff in returning and inventorying our large selection of tools, machines, and consumables. The app is built in Svelte, and uses the Google Sheets “publish to web as csv” feature to pull data from a staff-maintained list of equipment in the space. All of this is tied to a Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG) file that is controlled by JavaScript and CSS to provide an interactive map of our shelving and storage locations, highlighting bins as patrons select specific equipment from a searchable list on the kiosk, complete with photos of each piece of equipment. In this article, you will learn why the app was made, the problems it has solved, why certain technologies were used and others weren’t, the challenges that arose during development, and where the project stands to go from here.
  • Coevolution of library services, scholarly communication infrastructures, and emergent academic fields: the ongoing case of veterans studies
    Pencek, Bruce; Higgins, Jason A.; McGandy, Michael (University of Michigan Press, 2023-11-28)
    A decade ago, an archivist and a librarian asked the Charleston Conference: Is your library ready for an emergent academic field? (Brodsky and Pencek 2013) Here we present a history of that emerging academic field, veterans studies, emphasizing its coevolution with library services that support scholarly communication. These culminated in a flourishing open-access journal, a biennial conference, and a scholarly association to coordinate them. Ultimately, a local initiative became an international network that attracted federal grants and publisher interest. But even with scholars’ networks growing and librarians promoting access and preservation, a key question before the field is whether today's publishing ecosystem can be sufficiently robust and diversified to carry forward the multidisciplinary, transnational intellectual project laid out in the Veterans Studies Association’s scope statement (VSA 2022). Although a peculiar convergence of opportunities made possible one library’s contribution to the institutionalization of veterans studies, university libraries' intellectual and technological resources – even in their early stages – to support their own communities may be better equipped than they assume to help scholars grow new fields of research and instruction.
  • A protocol for a scoping review: Literature on undergraduate research and career readiness
    MacDonald, Amanda B.; Mekolichick, Jeanne; Hall, Eric E.; Picardo, Kristin; Richards, Rosalie (2024-04-26)
    This document provides the protocol for a scoping review to systematically map what the literature reveals faculty, programs, and institutions are intentionally providing via URSCI experiences to aid in career readiness.
  • A taste of cell-cultured meat: a scoping review
    To, K. V.; Comer, C. Cozette; O'Keefe, Sean F.; Lahne, Jacob (Frontiers, 2024-01-23)
    Cell-cultured meat (CM) is a novel meat product grown in vitro from animal cells, widely framed as equivalent to conventional meat but presented as produced in a more sustainable way. Despite its limited availability for human consumption, consumer acceptance of CM (e.g., willingness to purchase and consume) has been extensively investigated. A key but under-investigated assumption of these studies is that CM’s sensory qualities are comparable to conventional, equivalent meat products. Therefore, the current review aims to clarify what is actually known about the sensory characteristics of CM and their potential impact on consumer acceptance. To this end, a structured scoping review of existing, peer-reviewed literature on the sensory evaluation of CM was conducted according to the PRISMA-ScR and Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines. Among the included studies (N = 26), only 5 conducted research activities that could be termed “sensory evaluation,” with only 4 of those 5 studies evaluating actual CM products in some form. The remaining 21 studies based their conclusions on the sensory characteristics of CM and consequent consumer acceptance to a set of hypothetical CM products and consumption experiences, often with explicitly positive information framing. In addition, many consumer acceptance studies in the literature have the explicit goal to increase the acceptance of CM, with some authors (researchers) acting as direct CM industry affiliates; this may be a source of bias on the level of consumer acceptance toward these products. By separating what is known about CM sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance from what is merely speculated, the current review reported realistic expectations of CM’s sensory characteristics within the promissory narratives of CM proponents.
  • Prisoners After War : Veterans in the Age of Mass Incarceration
    Higgins, Jason A. (University of Massachusetts Press, 2024-03)
    The United States has both the largest, most expensive, and most powerful military and the largest, most expensive, and most punitive carceral system in the history of the world. Since the American War in Vietnam, hundreds of thousands of veterans have been incarcerated after their military service. Identifying the previously unrecognized connections between American wars and mass incarceration, Prisoners after War reaches across lines of race, class, and gender to record the untold history of incarcerated veterans over the past six decades. Having conducted dozens of oral history interviews, Jason A. Higgins traces the lifelong effects of war, inequality, disability, and mental illness, and explores why hundreds of thousands of veterans, from Vietnam to Afghanistan, were caught up in the carceral system. This original study tells an intergenerational history of state-sanctioned violence, punishment, and inequality, but its pages also resonate with stories of survival and redemption, revealing future possibilities for reform and reparative justice.
  • MetaEnhance: Metadata Quality Improvement for Electronic Theses and Dissertations of University Libraries
    Choudhury, Muntabir Hasan; Salsabil, Lamia; Jayanetti, Himarsha R.; Wu, Jian; Ingram, William A.; Fox, Edward A. (ACM, 2023)
    Metadata quality is crucial for discovering digital objects through digital library (DL) interfaces. However, due to various reasons, the metadata of digital objects often exhibits incomplete, inconsistent, and incorrect values. We investigate methods to automatically detect, correct, and canonicalize scholarly metadata, using seven key fields of electronic theses and dissertations (ETDs) as a case study. We propose MetaEnhance, a framework that utilizes state-of-the-art artificial intelligence (AI) methods to improve the quality of these fields. To evaluate MetaEnhance, we compiled a metadata quality evaluation benchmark containing 500 ETDs, by combining subsets sampled using multiple criteria. We evaluated MetaEnhance against this benchmark and found that the proposed methods achieved nearly perfect F1-scores in detecting errors and F1-scores ranging from 0.85 to 1.00 for correcting five of seven key metadata fields. The codes and data are publicly available on GitHub11https://github.com/lamps-lab/ETDMiner/tree/master/metadata-correction.