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dc.contributor.authorFeng, Junjieen
dc.date.accessioned2021-01-12T09:00:23Zen
dc.date.available2021-01-12T09:00:23Zen
dc.date.issued2021-01-11en
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:28163en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/101839en
dc.description.abstractWireless power transfer (WPT) with loosely coupled coils is a promising solution to deliver power to a battery in a variety of applications. Due to its convenience, wireless power transfer technology has become popular in consumer electronics. Thus far, the majority of the coupled coils in these systems are planar structure, and the magnetic field induced by the transmitter coil is in one direction, meaning that the energy power transfer capability degrades greatly when there is some angle misalignment between the coupled coils. To improve the charging flexibility, a three–dimensional (3D) coils structure is proposed to transfer energy in different directions. With appropriate modulation current flowing through each transmitter coil, the magnetic field rotates in different directions and covers all the directions in 3D space. With omnidirectional magnetic field, the charging platform can provide energy transfer in any direction; therefore, the angle alignment between the transmitter coil and receiver coil is no longer needed. Compensation networks are normally used to improve the power transfer capability of a WPT system with loosely coupled coils. The resonant circuits, formed by the loosely coupled coils and external compensation inductors or capacitors, are crucial in the converter design. In WPT system, the coupling coefficient between the transmitting coil and the receiving coil is subject to the receiver's positioning. The variable coupling condition is a big challenge to the resonant topology selection. The detailed requirements of the resonant converter in an omnidirectional WPT system are identified as follows: 1). coupling independent resonant frequency; 2). load independent output voltage; 3). load independent transmitter coil current; 4). maximum efficiency power transfer; 5). soft switching of active devices. A LCCL-LC resonant converter is derived to satisfy all of the five requirements. In consumer electronics applications, Megahertz (MHz) WPT systems are used to improve the charging spatial freedom. 6.78 MHz is selected as the system operation in AirFuel standard, a wireless charging standard for commercial electronics. The zero voltage switching (ZVS) operation of the switching devices is essential in reducing the switching loss and the switching related electromagnetic interference (EMI) issue in a MHz system; therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of ZVS condition in an omnidirectional WPT system is performed. And a design methodology of the LCCL-LC converter to achieve ZVS operation is proposed. The big hurdle of the WPT technology is the safety issue related to human exposure of electromagnetic fields (EMF). A double layer shield structure, including a magnetic layer and a conductive layer, is proposed in a three dimensional charging setup to reduce the stray magnetic field level. A parametric analysis of the double shield structure is conducted to improve the attenuation capability of the shielding structure. In an omnidirectional WPT system, the energy can be transferred in any direction; however the receiving devices has its preferred field direction based on its positioning and orientation. To focus power transfer towards targeted loads, a smart detection algorithm for identifying the positioning and orientation of receiver devices based on the input power information is presented. The system efficiency is further improved by a maximum efficiency point tracking function. A novel power flow control with a load combination strategy to charge multiple loads simultaneously is explained. The charging speed of the omnidirectional WPT system is greatly improved with proposed power flow control.en
dc.format.mediumETDen
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en
dc.subjectOmnidirectionalen
dc.subjectWireless power transferen
dc.subjectmagnetic fielden
dc.subjectresonant converteren
dc.subjecthigh frequencyen
dc.subjectsoft-switchingen
dc.subjectshieldingen
dc.title6.78MHz Omnidirectional Wireless Power Transfer System for Portable Devices Applicationen
dc.typeDissertationen
dc.contributor.departmentElectrical Engineeringen
dc.description.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen
thesis.degree.disciplineElectrical Engineeringen
dc.contributor.committeechairLi, Qiangen
dc.contributor.committeememberLee, Fred C.en
dc.contributor.committeememberSouthward, Steve C.en
dc.contributor.committeememberCenteno, Virgilio A.en
dc.contributor.committeememberManteghi, Majiden
dc.description.abstractgeneralWireless power transfer (WPT) is a promising solution to deliver power to a battery in a variety of applications. Due to its convenience, wireless power transfer technology with loosely coupled coils has become popular in consumer electronics. In such system, the receiving coil embedded in the receiving device picks up magnetic field induced by the transmitter coil; therefore, energy is transferred through the magnetic field and contactless charging is achieved. Thus far, the majority of the coupled coils in these systems are planar structure, and the magnetic field induced by the transmitter coil is in one direction, meaning that the energy power transfer capability degrades greatly when there is some angle misalignment between the coupled coils. To improve the charging flexibility, a three–dimensional (3D) coils structure is proposed to transfer energy in different directions, also known as in omnidirectional manner. With omnidirectional magnetic field, the charging platform can provide energy transfer in any direction; therefore, the angle alignment between the transmitter coil and receiver coil is no longer needed. In a WPT system with loosely coupled coils, the energy transfer capability suffers from weak coupling condition. To improve the power transfer capability, the electrical resonance concept between the inductor and capacitor at the power transfer frequency is adopted. A novel compensation network is proposed to form a resonant tank with the loosely coupled coils and maximize the power transfer at the operating frequency. As for the WPT system with loosely coupled coils, the energy transfer capability is also proportional to the operating frequency. Therefore, Megahertz (MHz) WPT systems are used to improve the charging spatial freedom. 6.78 MHz is selected as the system operation in AirFuel standard, a wireless charging standard for commercial electronics. The zero voltage switching (ZVS) operation of the switching devices is essential in reducing the switching loss and the switching related electromagnetic interference (EMI) issue in a MHz system; therefore, a comprehensive evaluation of ZVS condition in an omnidirectional WPT system is performed. The big hurdle of the WPT technology is the safety concern related to human exposure of electromagnetic fields (EMF). Therefore, a double layer shield structure is first applied in a three dimensional charging setup to confine the electromagnetic fields effectively. The stray field level in our charging platform is well below the safety level required by the regulation agent. Although the energy can be transferred in an omnidirectional manner in the proposed charging platform, the energy should be directed to the target loads to avoid unnecessary energy waste. Therefore, a smart detection method is proposed to detect the receiver coil's orientation and focus the energy transfer to certain direction preferred by the receiver in the setup. The energy beaming strategy greatly improves the charging speed of the charging setup.en


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