Machine Learning and Field Inversion approaches to Data-Driven Turbulence Modeling
Michelen Strofer, Carlos Alejandro
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There still is a practical need for improved closure models for the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. This dissertation explores two different approaches for using experimental data to provide improved closure for the Reynolds stress tensor field. The first approach uses machine learning to learn a general closure model from data. A novel framework is developed to train deep neural networks using experimental velocity and pressure measurements. The sensitivity of the RANS equations to the Reynolds stress, required for gradient-based training, is obtained by means of both variational and ensemble methods. The second approach is to infer the Reynolds stress field for a flow of interest from limited velocity or pressure measurements of the same flow. Here, this field inversion is done using a Monte Carlo Bayesian procedure and the focus is on improving the inference by enforcing known physical constraints on the inferred Reynolds stress field. To this end, a method for enforcing boundary conditions on the inferred field is presented. The two data-driven approaches explored and improved upon here demonstrate the potential for improved practical RANS predictions.
General Audience Abstract
The Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations are widely used to simulate fluid flows in engineering applications despite their known inaccuracy in many flows of practical interest. The uncertainty in the RANS equations is known to stem from the Reynolds stress tensor for which no universally applicable turbulence model exists. The computational cost of more accurate methods for fluid flow simulation, however, means RANS simulations will likely continue to be a major tool in engineering applications and there is still a need for improved RANS turbulence modeling. This dissertation explores two different approaches to use available experimental data to improve RANS predictions by improving the uncertain Reynolds stress tensor field. The first approach is using machine learning to learn a data-driven turbulence model from a set of training data. This model can then be applied to predict new flows in place of traditional turbulence models. To this end, this dissertation presents a novel framework for training deep neural networks using experimental measurements of velocity and pressure. When using velocity and pressure data, gradient-based training of the neural network requires the sensitivity of the RANS equations to the learned Reynolds stress. Two different methods, the continuous adjoint and ensemble approximation, are used to obtain the required sensitivity. The second approach explored in this dissertation is field inversion, whereby available data for a flow of interest is used to infer a Reynolds stress field that leads to improved RANS solutions for that same flow. Here, the field inversion is done via the ensemble Kalman inversion (EKI), a Monte Carlo Bayesian procedure, and the focus is on improving the inference by enforcing known physical constraints on the inferred Reynolds stress field. To this end, a method for enforcing boundary conditions on the inferred field is presented. While further development is needed, the two data-driven approaches explored and improved upon here demonstrate the potential for improved practical RANS predictions.
- Doctoral Dissertations