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Driven diffusive systems: How steady states depend on dynamics
In contrast to equilibrium systems, nonequilibrium steady states depend explicitly on the underlying dynamics. Using Monte Carlo simulations with Metropolis, Glauber, and heat bath rates, we illustrate this expectation for an Ising lattice gas, driven far from equilibrium by an "electric" field. While heat bath and Glauber rates generate essentially identical data for structure factors and two-point correlations, Metropolis rates give noticeably weaker correlations, as if the "effective" temperature were higher in the latter case. We also measure energy histograms and define a simple ratio which is exactly known and closely related to the Boltzmann factor for the equilibrium case. For the driven system, the ratio probes a thermodynamic derivative which is found to be dependent on dynamics.