The Effects of Two Generative Activities on Learner Comprehension of Part-Whole Meaning of Rational Numbers Using Virtual Manipulatives
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The study investigated the effects of two generative learning activities on students’ academic achievement of the part-whole representation of rational numbers while using virtual manipulatives. Third-grade students were divided randomly in two groups to evaluate the effects of two generative learning activities: answering-questions and generating-examples while using two virtual manipulatives related to part-whole representation of rational numbers. The study employed an experimental design with pre- and post-tests. A 2x2 mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine any significant interaction between the two groups (answering questions and generating-examples) and between two tests (pre-test and immediate post-test). In addition, a 2x3 mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) and a Bonferroni post-hoc analysis were used to determine the effects of the generative strategies on fostering comprehension, and to determine any significant differences between the two groups (answering-questions and generating-examples) and among the three tests (pre-test, immediate post-test, and delayed posttest). Results showed that an answering-questions strategy had a significantly greater effect than a generating-examples strategy on an immediate comprehension posttest. In addition, no significant interaction was found between the generative strategies on a delayed comprehension tests. However a difference score analysis between the immediate posttest scores and the delayed posttest scores revealed a significant difference between the answering-questions and the generating-examples groups suggesting that students who used generating-examples strategy tended to remember relatively more information than students who used the answering-questions strategy. The findings are discussed in the context of the related literature and directions for future research are suggested.
- Doctoral Dissertations