Responses of Nitrifying Bacteria to Aquaculture Chemotherapeutic Agents
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It was found that three of the chemotherapeutants: oxytetracycline, Romet-30Â®, and chelated copper caused inhibition to the nitrifying bacteria at the whole cell level as demonstrated in the results from water quality and specific oxygen uptake rate analyses. The nitrification process resumed once the chemotherapeutant was removed from the system, either by a mandatory water change or by natural degradation. The other three chemicals: formalin, Chloramine-T, and potassium permanganate did not result in any significant inhibition to the nitrification process. Experiments on laboratory-cultured nitrifying bacteria confirmed these findings. These experiments also resulted in the observation that the expression of amoA was upregulated by the copper exposure and inhibited by oxytetracycline and Romet-30Â®, but began to resume as the antibiotics degraded. Comprehensively, the findings of these analyses demonstrated that, although nitrifiers are well-known to be sensitive to their environment, the ability of nitrifying bacteria to continue their oxidative processes following exposure to chemical stress is inherent to the bacteria themselves rather than simply occurring under the protection of a biofilm community as has been suggested.
- Doctoral Dissertations