Energetic Deposition of Niobium Thin Film in Vacuum
Niobium thin films are expected to be free of solid inclusions commonly seen in solid niobium. For particle accelerators, niobium thin film has the potential to replace the solid niobium in the making of the accelerating structures. In order to understand and improve the superconducting performance of niobium thin films at cryogenic temperature, an energetic vacuum deposition system has been developed to study deposition energy effects on the properties of niobium thin films on various substrates. The system directly uses microwave power to create a pure niobium plasma, which can be used to extract niobium ion flux with controllable kinetic energy for direct deposition. The ultra high vacuum avoids the gaseous inclusions in thin films. A retarding field energy analyzer is developed and used to measure the kinetic energy of niobium at the substrate location. A systematic process for thin film characterization is developed and used to analyze the niobium thin films made by this energetic condensation. The properties of niobium thin films at several deposition energies are obtained, and the results show that there exists a preferred deposition energy around 115eV.
- Doctoral Dissertations