Thermal and Microstructure Modeling of Metal Deposition Processes with Application to Ti-6Al-4V
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Characterization of the deposit has shown that a complex microstructure evolves consisting of a two distinct regions: a transient region of undeveloped microstructure and a characteristic layer that is periodically repeated throughout the deposit. The transient region contains a fine basketweave and colony-alpha morphology. The characteristic layer contains a two phase mixture of alpha+beta, with the alpha phase exhibits regions of colony-alpha (layer band) and basketweave-alpha morphology.
The different regions of microstructural contrast in the deposit are associated with thermal cycling. The thermal model results show that a heat affected zone defined by the beta transus extends approximately 3 layers into the deposit. The phase fraction model predicts the greatest variation in microstructural evolution to occur in a layer n after the deposition of layer n+3. The results of the morphology model show that increased amounts of colony-alpha form near the top of a characteristic layer. It follows that a layer band (colony-alpha region) forms as a result of heating a region of material to a peak temperature just below the beta transus, where a large amount of primary-alpha dissolves. Upon cooling, colony-alpha forms intragranularly. The coupled thermal and microstructure models offer a way to quantitatively map microstructure during LMD processing of Ti-6Al-4V.
- Doctoral Dissertations