A Detailed Study of Fan-Shaped Film-Cooling for a Nozzle Guide Vane for an Industrial Gas Turbine
Colban IV, William F
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The goal of a gas turbine engine designer is to reduce the amount of coolant used to cool the critical turbine surfaces, while at the same time extracting more benefit from the coolant flow that is used. Fan-shaped holes offer this opportunity, reducing the normal jet momentum and spreading the coolant in the lateral direction providing better surface coverage. The main drawback of fan-shaped cooling holes is the added manufacturing cost from the need for electrical discharge machining instead of the laser drilling used for cylindrical holes. This research focused on examining the performance of fan-shaped holes on two critical turbine surfaces; the vane and endwall. This research was the first to offer a complete characterization of film-cooling on a turbine vane surface, both in single and multiple row configurations. Infrared thermography was used to measure adiabatic wall temperatures, and a unique rigorous image transformation routine was developed to unwrap the surface images. Film-cooling computations were also done comparing the performance of two popular turbulence models, the RNG-kÎµ and the v2-f model, in predicting film-cooling effectiveness. Results showed that the RNG-kÎµ offered the closest prediction in terms of averaged effectiveness along the vane surface. The v2-f model more accurately predicted the separated flow at the leading edge and on the suction side, but did not predict the lateral jet spreading well, which led to an over-prediction in film-cooling effectiveness. The intent for the endwall surface was to directly compare the cooling and aerodynamic performance of cylindrical holes to fan-shaped holes. This was the first direct comparison of the two geometries on the endwall. The effect of upstream injection and elevated inlet freestream turbulence was also investigated for both hole geometries. Results indicated that fan-shaped film-cooling holes provided an increase in film-cooling effectiveness of 75% on average above cylindrical film-cooling holes, while at the same time producing less total pressure losses through the passage. The effect of upstream injection was to saturate the near wall flow with coolant, increasing effectiveness levels in the downstream passage, while high freestream turbulence generally lowered effectiveness levels on the endwall.
- Doctoral Dissertations