Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(siloxane imide) Block Copolymers and End-Functional Polyimides for Interphase Applications
Bowens, Andrea Demetrius
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End-functional poly(ether amic acid)s and poly(siloxane imide) multiblock copolymers, comprised of 2,2'-Bis[4-(3,4-dicarboxyphenoxy)phenyl]propane dianhydride (BPADA) / meta-phenylene diamine (MPDA) and hexafluoroisopropylidene-2-bis(phthalic acid anhydride) (6FDA) / meta-phenylene diamine (MPDA) polyimide segments, have been prepared and characterized to explore possibilities for controlling interface properties. Incorporation of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) components into polyimide backbone structures can yield advantageous properties such as low energy surfaces and low stress interfaces. End-functional BPDA/MPDA poly(amic acid) salts and poly(siloxane amic acid) salts were prepared in methanolic or aqueous tripropylamine solutions. The polymeric salts formed stable water solutions (or dispersions) and imidized in less than 10 minutes at 260Â°C. The water solubility and rapid imidization times are ideal for on-line processing. Thus, these materials can be used as sizing and interface toughening agents for fiber reinforced composite manufacturing. Epoxy-polyimide networks prepared from the amine functionalized polyimide with DER 331 epoxy resin and diamino diphenylsulfone showed microphase separation (100-300 nm inclusions) by transmission electron microscopy. Slight toughening of the cured epoxy with 9 weight % imide was observed with the imide as the included phase. Epoxy bilayer films of polyimide (amine end-functional and commercial Ultemâ ¢) and poly(siloxane imide) multiblock copolymers were prepared to evaluate the polymer-matrix interphase region. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of the bilayer films showed diffusion at the interphase for the bilayers prepared with the polyimides and the BPADA/MPDA block copolymers containing polyimide continuous phases. Poly(siloxane imide) multiblock copolymers comprised of 6FDA/MPDA polyimide structures are ideal candidates for controlling interfacial properties between silicon substrates layered with thin films for microelectronic applications. These high Tg materials offer an approach for obtaining reduced moisture absorption and low stress interfaces. Evaluation of the refractive indices of the block copolymer films showed a decrease with increasing siloxane content thus suggesting the possibility of lower dielectric constants. The polymer-metal interfacial properties were investigated for films cast on titanium and tantalum substrates. The results suggested a correlation between the surface hydroxyl concentration of the metal oxide layer with the interfacial properties of the cast poly(siloxane imide) block copolymer films. The surface hydroxyls were thought to hydrogen bond with the PDMS component of the block copolymer. Since the titanium substrate has a higher surface hydroxyl concentration than the tantalum, higher silicon concentrations were observed. The melt imidized end-functional polyimides and poly(siloxane imide) block copolymers produced thermally stable materials with 5% weight loss temperatures well above 400Â°C. However, the block copolymers showed slightly lower 5% weight loss temperatures as a function of siloxane content with a significant increase in char formation. Correlation of the upper glass transition temperatures with the imide segment length was consistent with findings noted for other phase separated randomly segmented block copolymers. Incorporating PDMS into the polyimide backbone structure has an effect on the bulk and surface properties. The bulk properties of the poly(siloxane imide) block copolymers were characterized using TEM. The morphologies were consistent with classical block copolymers. Surface properties of the block copolymer films as a function of PDMS content were investigated using angular dependent X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at take-off angles of 15, 30, and 45Â°. Surface enrichment of PDMS content over that of the bulk was observed at all three sampling depths. Further evidence of this siloxane enrichment in the surface was demonstrated with water contact angle analyses. With as little as 5 weight % PDMS (
= 5000 g/mol) in the block copolymer there was over a 25% increase in the water contact angle over the polyimide control. The surface topography was influenced by the degree of phase separation and was characterized using AFM. The roughness factor was used to represent the data. It was found that the surface roughness increased with increasing PDMS content.
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