Influence of Isoxaben Application Timing on Dissipation and Broadleaf Weed Control in Turf
Chandran, Rakesh Sarasamma
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Isoxaben is a preemergence (PRE) broadleaf herbicide used in turf and ornamentals. Field, greenhouse, and laboratory research evaluated this herbicide for PRE control of selected broadleaves in turf, suspected postemergence (POST) herbicidal effects, and the influence of application timings and rates on soil residual. During seed germination in moist filter paper, isoxaben concentrations required for 50% inhibition of radicle growth (GR50) were 0.013, 0.010, 0.008, 0.008, and 0.007 ppm for dandelion, buckhorn plantain, white clover, black medic, and common lespedeza, respectively. In greenhouse experiments, isoxaben applied POST at 2.24 kg ai/ha suppressed the growth of Florida betony, black medic and white clover by 45, 65, and 66%, respectively, and reduced regrowth of Florida betony by 71%. In soil bioassays, yellow rocket control from isoxaben applied in fall was approximately 20 and 30% greater than spring-applied isoxaben at 3 and 6 MAT, respectively. Buckhorn plantain control from fall treatments at 3 MAT was approximately 15% higher than spring-applied isoxaben at 3 MAT. Application timings did not influence control of spotted spurge, a less sensitive weed. Isoxaben applied to turf in spring at 1.12 kg/ha provided > 90% control of buckhorn plantain, dandelion, and corn speedwell at 4 MAT. Fall applied isoxaben at the same rate provided total control of common chickweed, corn speedwell and henbit at 3 MAT and 80 to 90% control of white sweet clover and buckhorn plantain that germinated the following spring. Double (spring followed by fall) application of isoxaben to turf appeared to enhance broadleaf weed control in some instances. Dissipation of isoxaben in the top 3.8 cm of a Ross silt-loam soil as affected by spring, fall, and spring followed by fall applications was determined using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis. Isoxaben residues in soil decreased by 55 and 92% by 3 and 6 MAT, respectively, for spring teatments, and decreased 29 and 52% by 3 and 6 MAT for fall treatments, respectively. A soil-bioassay study correlated well with chemical analysis of isoxaben residues, as the correlation coefficients were 0.85 and 0.89 for yellow rocket and buckhorn plantain, respectively.
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