Effect of 1B/1R Chromosomal Translocation on Dough Rheology of Soft Red Winter Wheat Flour
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The 1995-1996 and 1996-1997 SRWW flours were subjected to farinograph analysis and dough stickiness testing. Dough stickiness was determined by the Schwarzlaff-Shepherd Dough Stripping Method. Wheat samples from 1995-1996 were also analyzed for protein, ash, and moisture content, alkaline water retention capacity (AWRC), cookie diameter, tensile stress and strain, and by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C-NMR) spectroscopy techniques.
Significant (p = 0.0001) negative correlations were found between AWRC and cookie diameter of SRWWs grown in Warsaw and Blacksburg. Location was found to exert a significant effect on AWRC, cookie diameter and stickiness (p < 0.05). Farinograph data revealed that mixing characteristics of SRWW were affected significantly by variety, crop year and location (p < 0.05). In some cases the 1B/1R varieties had lower breakdown rates, longer departure times (DT) and lower mixing tolerance index (MTI), than their non-1B/1R counterparts. There was a significant difference (p = 0.0133) in the stickiness of 1B/1R and non-1B/1R samples from Blacksburg. However no such difference was found in the corresponding Warsaw samples (p = 0.9826), indicating that location exerted a significant effect on stickiness.
Two flour samples exhibiting stickiness (one with and one without 1B/1R) and two non-sticky samples (one with and one without the 1B/1R) were fractionated into gluten, starch and water-solubles (WS) in order to determine if the sticky dough factor resided in the 1B/1R and / or non-1B/1R WS. The peel time of the interchanged samples, as in the case of 'Massey' flour combined with the WS from VA52-22, increased to 79 seconds from the 30 seconds originally observed in the Massey flour. However when gluten and starch fractions from a non-sticky, non-1B/1R sample,VA54-21, were mixed with WS from VA54-211 (sticky, 1B/1R), the peel time went from 18 in the original flour to 8 seconds.
Tensile measurements showed dough stress was not significantly affected by the presence or absence of 1B/1R (p = 0.7057). However, dough strain was lower in 1B/1R translocated SRWWs (p = 0.0048). A 13C-NMR spectra failed to show differences amongst selected 1B/1R and non-1B/1R dough samples. Proton relaxation time (T1-rho-[H]) - a 13C-NMR technique, indicated that water did not exert a significant influence on the molecular dynamics within the dough samples of Massey (non-1B/1R), VA54-211 (1B/1R) and VA52-22 (1B/1R). However, the non-sticky, non-1B/1R sample (VA54-21) had a higher proton relaxation time at 62 ppm which may indicate the size of starch-protein particles in VA54-21 doughs were larger and less flexible than in the other three doughs.
- Doctoral Dissertations