Integrated optoelectronics applications in fiber optic receiver packaging
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The objective of this research is the' development and evaluation of a new style of integrated optoelectronics. The approach combines the selectivity of traditional hybrid integration with the "internal" interconnection capabilities of monolithic integration, through the use of low temperature cofireable ceramic (LTCC) tape systems. This new integration technique is applied to a fiber optic receiver system, and focuses on three main tasks. The first task involves the realization, and eventual hybridization, of the receiver electronics, including the photodetector and the associated amplifier circuitry. Second, materials and techniques for the processing of planar optical waveguides are investigated, in order to expand the potential applications of the technique. Finally, a new technique of integrating an optical fiber with the above components is introduced and evaluated.
Multichip module (MCM) technology has become the new standard in the field of electronic packaging. Much of the success of MCM packaging may be attributed to the development of LTCC systems. LTCC materials utilize their multilayer (3-dimensional) nature to achieve a higher level of electronic circuit density within a hermetic module. The goal of this research effort is to expand this capability to include optical components, in addition to the traditional electronics. The optical counterpart to the printed electrical wiring within an LTCC package is the planar waveguide. Much of this research is therefore devoted to an investigation of materials and processing techniques used to develop planar optical waveguide structures. This research discusses the production and evaluation of both thin film and thick film structures based on germanium oxide (GeO2) - a material with promising photosensitivity characteristics. As has been seen with optical fibers, the optimization of planar optical waveguides is also not a trivial task. Aside from the material and processing concerns, there is also the compatibility with cofireable ceramic materials that must be addressed.
Once these planar optical waveguides are able to be incorporated within the internal layers of the multichip module, there must be a means of accessing them from the outside of the package. Thus this research work also investigates the ability to integrate optical fibers within LTCC materials. Traditional optical fiber connectors are not suitable for this application, since the interface between fiber and waveguide will be inside a hermetic module. This research discusses the techniques used toÂ· achieve this novel integration capability. The planar optical waveguides developed in this work are not yet optimized for full integration within cofireable ceramic materials. Thus, the interface between fiber and waveguide is theoretically. analyzed from the perspective of coupling efficiency. Nevertheless, the ability to integrate an optical fiber within an LTCC module is demonstrated through the development of a fiber optic receiver module. One of the benefits of the integration technique proposed in this research work is selectivity. This feature is demonstrated through the evaluation and selection of individual components of the receiver system. This work demonstrates that the selection of receiver components is not dictated by the integration technology, but is determined instead by individual performance characteristics.
Through the hybridization of the receiver circuitry and the successful integration of an optical fiber within the LTCC material, a functional integrated fiber optic receiver module has been completed. In addition, this research into the development of both thick and thin film planar optical waveguide materials is an important step toward the eventual integration of these devices.
- Doctoral Dissertations