Studies of Biomacromolecule Adsorption and Activity at Solid Surfaces by Surface Plasmon Resonance and Quartz Crystal Microbalance with Dissipation Monitoring
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Self-assembly of polysaccharide derivatives at liquid/solid interfaces was studied by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR) and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D). Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) adsorption onto cellulose surfaces from aqueous solutions was enhanced by electrolytes, especially by divalent cations. A combination of SPR and QCM-D results showed that CMC formed highly hydrated layers on cellulose surfaces (90 to 95% water by mass). Voigt-based viscoelastic modeling of the QCM-D data was consistent with the existence of highly hydrated CMC layers with relatively low shear viscosities of ~ 10-3 Nâ ¢sâ ¢m-2 and elastic shear moduli of ~ 105 Nâ ¢m-2. Adsorption of pullulan 3-methoxycinnamates (P3MC) and pullulan 4-chlorocinnamates (P4CC) with different degrees of cinnamate substitution (DSCinn) onto cellulose, cellulose acetate propionate (CAP), poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA), and methyl-terminated self-assembled monolayer (SAM-CH3) surfaces was also studied by SPR and QCM-D. Hydrophobic cinnamate groups promoted the adsorption of pullulan onto all surfaces and the adsorption onto hydrophobic surfaces was significantly greater than onto hydrophilic surfaces. SPR and QCM-D results showed that P3MC and P4CC also formed highly hydrated layers (70 to 90% water by mass) with low shear viscosities and elastic shear moduli. Finally, cellulose adsorption and activity on pullulan cinnamate (PC) and cellulose blend films were studied via QCM-D and in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hydrophobicity of PC surfaces was controlled by adjusting the degree of cinnamate substitution per anhydroglucose unit (DSCinn). It was found that cellulase showed weak adsorption onto low DSCinn PC surfaces, whereas cellulase adsorbed strongly onto high DSCinn PC surfaces, a clear indication of the role surface hydrophobicity played on enzyme adsorption. Moreover, cellulase catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose/PC and cellulose/polystyrene (PS) blend surfaces was studied. The QCM-D results showed that the cellulase hydrolysis rate on cellulose in cellulose/PC blend surfaces decreased with increasing DSCinn. AFM images revealed smooth surfaces for cellulose/PC (DSCinn = 0.3) blend surfaces and laterally phase separated morphologies for cellulose/PC (DSCinn â ¥ 0.7) blend surfaces. The combination of QCM-D and AFM measurements indicated that cellulase catalyzed hydrolysis was strongly affected by surface morphology. The cellulase hydrolysis activity on cellulose in cellulose/PS blend surfaces was similar with cellulose/PC blend surfaces (DSCinn â ¥ 0.7). These studies showed self-assembly of macromolecules could be a promising strategy to modify material surfaces and provided further fundamental understanding of adsorption phenomena and bioactivity of macromolecules at liquid/solid interfaces.
- Doctoral Dissertations