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Allelopathic effects of ferulic, gallic, and vanillic acids on corn (Zea mays L.)
Abdaoui, Fatima El
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Studies on the activity of femlic, gallic, and vanillic acids on germination and growth of corn (Zea mays L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) showed that the inhibitory effects of these acids were concentration and growth variable dependent. Ten days after treatment, significant reduction in percent germination of the three species occurred with higher phenolic acid treatments, except that gallic acid did not significantly inhibit peanut germination. Among the growth parameters investigated, root elongation and dry weight were more affected than either germination or shoot length and dry weight. Radish and corn were more sensitive than peanut. In two-combination experiments, the interactive effects of phenolic acids on corn germination and shoot growth were generally not significant, indicating an additive effect. Femlic acid, generally, antagonized higher concentrations of vanillic or gallic acids on corn root length and dry weight, suggesting a differential uptake of phenolic acids by corn roots or a limited uptake of gallic and vanillic acids in the presence of ferulic acid. In a soil system, higher and repeated phenolic acid treatments were required to bring about inhibition of corn growth than those which were effective in petri dishes. All levels of the synthetic auxin, 2,4-D (2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid) were effective in reversing the inhibitory effects of 1 mM ferulic acid on corn root length when these two acids were applied in combination. No 2,4-D treatment counteracted 10 mM of ferulic acid. All levels of 2,4-D combined with 1 mM ferulic acid and the mixture of 0.1 nM 2,4-D with 10 mM ferulic acid were antagonistic for corn shoot length. No significant interactions were obtained on corn germination or seedling growth when 2,4-D was combined with gallic acid. Using manometric techniques, no inhibitory effects of ferulic or gallic acids observed on 02 consumption of germinating corn seeds. Ferulic acid did not interfere with water uptake of corn seeds during imbibition and germination. These findings indicate that the phytotoxicity of these acids observed on corn germination and seedling growth are not due to their interference with water uptake and respiratory activity of germinating seeds.
- Doctoral Dissertations