The development of poly(vinylidene fluoride) piezoelectric sensors for measuring peel stresses in adhesive joints
Anderson, Gregory Lee
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Although bond-normal stresses have been shown to be responsible for the failure of most laboratory adhesive joint geometries, the measurement of these stresses has been accomplished only through the use of very sophisticated optical techniques. In order to develop a more versatile measurement technique, poly(vinylidene fluoride) film was used to develop piezoelectric stress sensors. The sensitivities of the film to normal stresses in the three principal material directions of the orthotropic film were accurately measured using a charge amplifier and a storage oscilloscope. These measured sensitivities comprised the calibration constants of the film. In order to reduce the detrimental effect on bond strength caused by embedding the low surface energy film into adhesive bondlines, surface treatment methods were investigated using contact angle studies, XPS analysis and 1800 peel and tapered double cantilever beam adhesion specimens. An acid etch using a mixture of acetic, phosphoric and nitric acids was found to greatly improve the bond strengths to an epoxy adhesive without reducing the piezoelectric activity of the film. The bond-normal stresses in both the elastomeric butt joint and the single lap shear joint were measured using the developed stress sensors. Comparison of the measured stresses with calculated values obtained from closed-form analytical solutions and finite element analysis for the stresses was excellent. The piezoelectric sensors do have several important limitations. The piezoelectric activity of the film is lost at temperatures above 100°C (210°F). Also, the sensors are only sensitive to dynamic loads. Nonetheless, the sensors provide an accurate means of measuring peel stresses in many adhesive joints of practical interest.
- Doctoral Dissertations