Control strategies for the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea : comparative stress responses and nontarget impact
Bidwell, Joseph R.
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The studies described herein focused on the use of intermittent halogenation to control biofouling of water intake systems by the zebra mussel, Dreissena polymorpha, the comparative response of zebra mussels and the Asian clam, Corbicula fluminea, to a surfactant -based chemical control agent, the nontarget impact associated with the control agent, and the use of the Asian clam as a biomonitor of the control agent. Effects of intermittent (2-4 hr/day) treatments with chlorine or bromine at levels of 0.5 and 1.0 mg/L (total residual oxidant) upon settling of zebra mussel veligers were examined in studies conducted in a field laboratory on western Lake Erie. Veliger densities in the water column at the field site peaked at 530/L, while mussel densities on settling monitors reached 147,083/m2 over the course of the study period. Zebra mussel settling in test systems treated with the halogens was reduced by as much as 91 % in comparison with controls, although mussel densities of up to 6,044/m2 still occurred. Treated mussels which remained settled had growth rates similar to controls, and reached 2-4 mm length over 30 days. The intermittent halogen treatments had no significant impact on either adult zebra mussels or Asian clams. The studies indicate that while the treatment regimes may reduce zebra mussel densities within intake systems, the threat of eventual fouling due to cumulative settling remains.
- Doctoral Dissertations