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The effects of temperature, water quality and culture conditions on the immunology, hematology, and blood chemistry of hybrid striped bass
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Sunshine and palmetto bass (different crosses of hybrid striped bass) were used to determine immunologic, hematologic and serum chemistry changes under different culture conditions. The kinetics of the humoral immune response was determined for sunshine bass acclimated to 10, 18, 24, 29Â°C, and to elevated ammonia (0.15 mg/L NH3) and elevated nitrate (200 mg/L). These conditions are frequently encountered in aquaculture situations. Cooler temperatures decreased both the magnitude and onset of the humoral response, being lowest at 10Â°C, intermediate at 18Â°C, the highest at 24 and 29Â°C. Elevated ammonia did not affect the immune response, while elevated nitrate decreased antibody production to the level of the 18Â°C response. Hematologic reference intervals were determined for sunshine bass in tanks and recirculating systems, and palmetto bass in tanks. Serum chemistry reference intervals were determined for sunshine bass in tanks, recirculating systems and cage systems. Greater differences were observed in reference intervals between the culture systems, than between the two types of hybrid. To determine if environmental factors influenced the differences seen in the reference, sunshine bass were acclimated to 10, 18, 24, 29Â°C, elevated ammonia (0.15 mg/L NH3) and elevated nitrate (200 mg/L). The hematology and serum chemistry profiles of these fish were compared with the reference intervals for sunshine bass in tanks. Leukocyte, lymphocyte and monocyte counts at 10Â°C, and glucose and calcium at 10 and 18Â°C deviated sufficiently to suggest generating separate reference intervals at these temperatures. In the nitrate treated fish, creatinine levels were elevated and chloride levels were lower than controls and outside the reference interval. These two responses were presumed to be pathologic changes associated with elevated nitrate levels due to the large deviation in the analytes and the mortalities seen in the nitrate treated fish. The remaining analytes for fish in the different environments were within or slightly outside the reference intervals. These slight changes were presumed to be due to individual variation as the reference intervals were determined for fish under relatively uniform conditions and may not be sufficiently broad to cover fish from more varied environments. With minor modification, the reference intervals should apply to sunshine bass in most situations.
- Doctoral Dissertations