Effect of Foliar Nitrogen and Sulfur Applications on Aroma Profile of Vitis vinifera L. cv. Petit Manseng using Modified Quantitative Descriptive Analysis, SPME GC-MS and Electronic Nose Technology
Kelly, Molly Kathleen
MetadataShow full item record
Petit Manseng grapes harvested in 2011 and 2012 were fertilized with soil nitrogen at 0, and 30 kgN/ha, foliar nitrogen at 15kg/ha and foliar nitrogen plus sulfur at 15kg/ha and 5kg respectively. Point quadrat analysis demonstrated foliar nitrogen alone and nitrogen plus sulfur treatments increased percent gaps and lower leaf layer numbers. Berry juice samples differed in ammonia, arginine and yeast assimilable nitrogen concentration. Total glycosides were 25 percent higher in the foliar nitrogen treatment versus the control treatment. Electronic nose measurements on field clusters and laboratory berry analyses was different among treatments in volatile content. Harvest samples underwent acid or enzyme hydrolysis of precursor fractions. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis identified 27 free aroma and flavor compounds and 52 bound compounds. Lactones and carboxylic acids were the major components of the free fractions while bound fractions had increased concentrations of alcohols, esters and terpenes compared to the free fraction. With nitrogen fertilization, acid and enzyme hydrolysis had reduced concentrations of some higher alcohols and carboxylic acids. Acid hydrolysis released more terpenes with nitrogen treatments versus enzymatic hydrolysis. Ester content was increased in both acid and enzyme hydrolysis fractions in vines receiving nitrogen treatments. For descriptive analysis, eight trained panelists described aroma, flavor, texture/mouthfeel and aftertaste attributes. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that wines were a significant source of variation with 23 of the 24 attributes used. Wine principal component analysis (PCA) of aroma attributes explained 23.5% of the variation from PC1, while flavor-by-mouth and texture/mouthfeel attributes explained 26.3% of the variation due to PC1. The aim of this study was to develop descriptive terms for Petit Manseng and determine the influence of fruit nitrogen levels on the aroma and flavor profile of this cultivar.
- Doctoral Dissertations