Mechanisms of growth hormone inhibition of adipose tissue growth
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Growth hormone (GH) is a poly-peptide hormone produced by the anterior pituitary. Growth hormone not only stimulates body and muscle growth but also inhibits adipose tissue growth. The overall objective of this study was to determine the mechanisms by which GH inhibits adipose tissue growth. Three studies were conducted to achieve this objective. The first study was conducted to determine if GH inhibits fat tissue growth by stimulating lipolysis. In this study, adipose tissue weight and adipocyte size were compared between GH-deficient growth hormone releasing hormone receptor (Ghrhr) homozygous mutant mice (i.e., lit/lit mice), lit/+ mice, and lit/lit mice injected with GH. lit/lit mice had less body weight but more subcutaneous fat and larger adipocytes compared to lit/+ mice at the same ages. GH treatment to lit/lit mice for four weeks partially reversed these differences. These data suggest that GH inhibits adipose tissue growth in mice at least in part by stimulating lipolysis. Additional data from this study suggest that GH indirectly stimulates lipolysis in vivo and this indirect mechanism is independent of " adrenergic receptors in the adipose tissue. The second study was conducted to investigate if GH inhibits fat tissue growth also by inhibiting adipogenesis. In this study, stromal vascular fraction (SVF) cells were isolated from subcutaneous fat of lit/+ and lit/lit mice and were induced to differentiate into adipocytes in vitro. Oil Red O staining and gene expression analysis revealed that the SVF cells from lit/lit mice had greater adipogenic potential than from lit/+ mice. This suggests that GH inhibits adipose tissue growth also through inhibition of adipogenesis. Additional data from this study suggest that GH may inhibit adipogenesis by inhibiting the formation of adipogenic precursor cells in adipose tissue in mice. The third study was conducted to determine the role of the central component of GH receptor signaling, STAT5, in GH inhibition of differentiation of bovine preadipocytes. In this study, preadipocytes were isolated from subcutaneous fat of adult cattle and were induced to differentiate with or without GH. Based on Oil Red O staining, gene expression, glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH) activity and acetate incorporation assays, GH inhibited differentiation of bovine preadipocytes into adipocytes. GH induced phosphorylation of STAT5 in differentiating bovine preadipocytes. Overexpression of constitutively active STAT5 through adenovirus mimicked the effect of GH on differentiation of bovine preadipocytes. These data support a role of STAT5 in mediating the inhibitory effect of GH on differentiation of bovine preadipocytes into adipocytes. Overall, GH inhibits adipose tissue by both stimulating lipolysis and inhibiting adipogenesis; GH stimulates lipolysis through an indirect mechanism that is independent of the " adrenergic receptors; GH inhibits adipogenesis through a direct mechanism that may involve the transcription factor STAT5.
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