Genetic studies of candidate genes in the glycoalkaloid biosynthetic pathway of potato
Manrique Carpintero, Norma Constanza
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Potato (Solanum tuberosum L) is an outcrossing, highly heterozygous cultivated in which the elucidation of the genetic basis of quantitative traits, is more complex than in self-pollinated crops. Both a candidate gene approach and a whole genome SNP genotyping analysis were used to assess allelic variation and to identify loci associated with biosynthesis and accumulation of steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGAs). SGAs are secondary metabolites produced in Solanum species as defense against insects and pathogens. Fragments of genomic DNA coding for regions of five SGA biosynthetic candidate genes were amplified, cloned and sequenced [3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase 1 and 2 (HMG1, HMG2); 2,3-squalene epoxidase (SQE); solanidine galactosyltransferase (SGT1); and solanidine glucosyltransferase (SGT2)]. A germplasm panel of six wild potato species [Solanum chacoense (chc 80-1), S. commersonii subsp. commersonii, S. demissum, S. sparsipilum, S. spegazzinii, and S. stoloniferum] and a cultivated clone S. tuberosum Group Phureja (phu DH) was used in an allelic variation analysis. A segregating interspecific F2 population phu DH ï¿½" chc 80-1 was screened to assess association with SGAs. Sequence diversity analysis showed a tendency of purifying selection and increased frequency of rare alleles in most of the candidate genes. Genes of primary metabolism (HMG1, HMG2 and SQE) had stronger selection constraints than those in secondary metabolism (SGT1 and SGT2). Sequence polymorphism in HMG2, SQE, SGT1 and SGT2 separated either the phu DH clone which produced no SGAs, or chc 80-1, the greatest SGA accumulator, from other accessions in the panel. Segregation analysis of the F2 population revealed that allelic sequences of HMG2 and SGT2 derived from chc 80-1 were significantly associated with the greatest SGA accumulation. In the whole genome analysis, SNP genotyping and cluster analysis based on putative association with SGA accumulation in the germplasm panel, allowed identification of eight informative SNPs that can be used in future studies. In the segregating F2 population, loci located on five pseudochromosomes were associated with SGA synthesis. Loci on pseudochromosomes 1 and 6 explained segregation ratios of synthesis for Î±-solanine and Î±-chaconine, the most common SGAs in most potato species. In addition, loci on seven pseudochromosomes were associated with accumulation. New candidate genes, putatively affecting synthesis and accumulation of SGAs, were identified in adjacent genomic regions of significant SNPs. This research demonstrates how the newly available genome sequence of potato and associated biotechnological tools accelerates the identification of genetic factors underling complex traits in a species with a difficult breeding structure.
- Doctoral Dissertations