Development of Multi-perspective Diagnostics and Analysis Algorithms with Applications to Subsonic and Supersonic Combustors
Wickersham, Andrew Joseph
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There are two critical research needs for the study of hydrocarbon combustion in high speed flows: 1) combustion diagnostics with adequate temporal and spatial resolution, and 2) mathematical techniques that can extract key information from large datasets. The goal of this work is to address these needs, respectively, by the use of high speed and multi-perspective chemiluminescence and advanced mathematical algorithms. To obtain the measurements, this work explored the application of high speed chemiluminescence diagnostics and the use of fiber-based endoscopes (FBEs) for non-intrusive and multi-perspective chemiluminescence imaging up to 20 kHz. Non-intrusive and full-field imaging measurements provide a wealth of information for model validation and design optimization of propulsion systems. However, it is challenging to obtain such measurements due to various implementation difficulties such as optical access, thermal management, and equipment cost. This work therefore explores the application of FBEs for non-intrusive imaging to supersonic propulsion systems. The FBEs used in this work are demonstrated to overcome many of the aforementioned difficulties and provided datasets from multiple angular positions up to 20 kHz in a supersonic combustor. The combustor operated on ethylene fuel at Mach 2 with an inlet stagnation temperature and pressure of approximately 640 degrees Fahrenheit and 70 psia, respectively. The imaging measurements were obtained from eight perspectives simultaneously, providing full-field datasets under such flow conditions for the first time, allowing the possibility of inferring multi-dimensional measurements. Due to the high speed and multi-perspective nature, such new diagnostic capability generates a large volume of data and calls for analysis algorithms that can process the data and extract key physics effectively. To extract the key combustion dynamics from the measurements, three mathematical methods were investigated in this work: Fourier analysis, proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), and wavelet analysis (WA). These algorithms were first demonstrated and tested on imaging measurements obtained from one perspective in a sub-sonic combustor (up to Mach 0.2). The results show that these algorithms are effective in extracting the key physics from large datasets, including the characteristic frequencies of flow—flame interactions especially during transient processes such as lean blow off and ignition. After these relatively simple tests and demonstrations, these algorithms were applied to process the measurements obtained from multi-perspective in the supersonic combustor. compared to past analyses (which have been limited to data obtained from one perspective only), the availability of data at multiple perspective provide further insights into the flame and flow structures in high speed flows. In summary, this work shows that high speed chemiluminescence is a simple yet powerful combustion diagnostic. Especially when combined with FBEs and the analyses algorithms described in this work, such diagnostics provide full-field imaging at high repetition rate in challenging flows. Based on such measurements, a wealth of information can be obtained from proper analysis algorithms, including characteristic frequency, dominating flame modes, and even multi-dimensional flame and flow structures.
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