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Accelerated Storage Systems
Khasymski, Aleksandr Sergeev
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Today's large-scale, high-performance, data-intensive applications put a tremendous stress on data centers to store, index, and retrieve large amounts of data. Exemplified by technologies such as social media, photo and video sharing, and e-commerce, the rise of the real-time web demands data stores support minimal latencies, always-on availability and ever-growing capacity. These requirements have fostered the development of a large number of high-performance storage systems, arguably the most important of which are Key-Value (KV) stores. An emerging trend for achieving low latency and high throughput in this space is a solution, which utilizes both DRAM and flash by storing an efficient index for the data in memory and minimizing accesses to flash, where both keys and values are stored. Many proposals have examined how to improve KV store performance in this area. However, these systems have shortcomings, including expensive sorting and excessive read and write amplification, which is detrimental to the life of the flash. Another trend in recent years equips large scale deployments with energy-efficient, high performance co-processors, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs). Recent work has explored using GPUs to accelerate compute-intensive I/O workloads, including RAID parity generation, encryption, and compression. While this research has proven the viability of GPUs to accelerate these workloads, we argue that there are significant benefits to be had by developing methods and data structures for deep integration of GPUs inside the storage stack, in order to achieve better performance, scalability, and reliability. In this dissertation, we propose comprehensive frameworks that leverage emerging technologies, such as GPUs and flash-based SSDs, to accelerate modern storage systems. For our accelerator-based solution, we focus on developing a system that features deep integration of the GPU in a distributed parallel file system. We utilize a framework that builds on the resources available in the file system and coordinates the workload in such a way that minimizes data movement across the PCIe bus, while exposing data parallelism to maximize the potential for acceleration on the GPU. Our research aims to improve the overall reliability of a PFS by developing a distributed per-file parity generation that provides end-to-end data integrity and unprecedented flexibility. Finally, we design a high-performance KV store utilizing a novel data structure tailored to specific flash requirements; it arranges data on flash in such a way as to minimize write amplification, which is detrimental to the flash cells. The system delivers outstanding read amplification through the use of a trie index and false positive filter.
- Doctoral Dissertations