Large Eddy Simulations of Sand Transport and Deposition in the Internal Cooling Passages of Gas Turbine Blades
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Jet engines often operate under dirty conditions where large amounts of particulate matter can be ingested, especially, sand, ash and dirt. Particulate matter in different engine components can lead to degradation in performance. The objective of this dissertation is to investigate sand transport and deposition in the internal cooling passages of turbine blades. A simplified rectangular geometry is simulated to mimic the flow field, heat transfer and particle transport in a two pass internal cooling geometry. Two major challenges are identified while trying to simulate particle deposition. First, no reliable particle-wall collision model is available to calculate energy losses during a particle wall interaction. Second, available deposition models for particle deposition do not take into consideration all the impact parameters like impact velocity, impact angle, and particle temperature. These challenges led to the development of particle wall collision and deposition models in the current study. First a preliminary simulation is carried out to investigate sand transport and impingement patterns in the two pass geometry by using an idealized elastic collision model with the walls of the duct without any deposition. Wall Modeled Large Eddy Simulations (WMLES) are carried to calculate the flow field and a Lagrangian approach is used for particle transport. The outcome of these simulations was to get a qualitative comparison with experimental visualizations of the impingement patterns in the two pass geometry. The results showed good agreement with experimental distributions and identified surfaces most prone to deposition in the two pass geometry. The initial study is followed by the development of a particle-wall collision model based on elastic-plastic deformation and adhesion forces by building on available theories of deformation and adhesion for a spherical contact with a flat surface. The model calculates deformation losses and adhesion losses from particle-wall material properties and impact parameters and is broadly applicable to spherical particles undergoing oblique impact with a rigid wall. The model is shown to successfully predict the general trends observed in experiments. To address the issue of predicting deposition, an improved physical model based on the critical viscosity approach and energy losses during particle-wall collisions is developed to predict the sand deposition at high temperatures in gas turbine components. The model calculates a sticking or deposition probability based on the energy lost during particle collision and the proximity of the particle temperature to the softening temperature. For validation purposes, the deposition of sand particles is computed for particle laden jet impingement on a coupon and compared with experiments conducted at Virginia Tech. Large Eddy Simulations are used to calculate the flow field and heat transfer and particle dynamics is modeled using a Lagrangian approach. The results showed good agreement with the experiments for the range of jet temperatures investigated. Finally the two pass geometry is revisited with the developed particle-wall collision and deposition model. Sand transport and deposition is investigated in a two pass internal cooling geometry at realistic engine conditions. LES calculations are carried out for bulk Reynolds number of 25,000 to calculate flow and temperature field. Three different wall temperature boundary conditions of 950 oC, 1000 oC and 1050 oC are considered. Particle sizes in the range 5-25 microns are considered, with a mean particle diameter of 6 microns. Calculated impingement and deposition patterns are discussed for different exposed surfaces in the two pass geometry. It is evident from this study that at high temperatures, heavy deposition occurs in the bend region and in the region immediately downstream of the bend. The models and tools developed in this study have a wide range of applicability in assessing erosion and deposition in gas turbine components.
- Doctoral Dissertations