A future of surprises
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The aim of this chapter is to discuss some recent developments in integrating human perceptions into ecological-economic models and to use these models to explore the possibilities and consequences of changing perspectives on sustainable futures. Should environmental policy be preventative, adaptive, or reactive? This chapter explains that precautionary policies are necessary to limit harmful surprises; adaptive polices are necessary to increase the adaptive capacity of nature and society; but even still, surprises can lead to extreme events not prepared for so reactive polices need to be available. Various types of models should be explored in the coming years to understand the interactions between worldviews, management, and ecosystems. Improved understanding of these relations can improve insights into which types of policies and institutions are resilient in the longer term for both society and ecosystems. This chapter focuses on perceptions of sustainable development by multiple actors in human-ecological systems.