Integrating motion media in the instruction of English literature : outcomes-based guidelines
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In the age of digital literacy, teachers need to seek out the best practice in the use of technology so that the digital divide between teachers and learners can be bridged. This study proposed to look at ways to implement motion media (specifically the moving image) technology effectively as a supplementary instructional medium for literature study and to set guidelines for FET (Further Education and Training) English teachers so that learning outcomes could be achieved easily by all learners in the South African English literature class. The aim of this study was to provide guidelines for teachers in order to make optimal language (specific literature) learning possible and enjoyable through the application of motion media technology. In addition to the literature study, qualitative research was done through case studies and by conducting interviews with teachers who teach English Home Language and English as an Additional Language in the FET-phase. The problem addressed in this study is that even though educational technology (especially moving image technology) is easily available to most teachers, they do not implement it in their literature lessons as they are not adequately trained to incorporate it into their lessons. This makes the digital divide between teachers and learners even bigger. The dilemma for many teachers in the twenty-first century is that they have to teach learners print-based literature in an era where everything is technological. The pedagogical potential of moving image media within the English curriculum was explored in this study. The nature and scope of English as a subject area was discussed and various types of literacies were identified. A case was made for moving image education to become central to English literature teaching. Guidelines, strategies and techniques were proposed for teachers who are not technologically trained. Resources for teaching literature with the moving image were also identified. It became evident from the data received from the interviews conducted, that most teachers did not possess the knowledge and skills to use technology effectively in their English literature lessons. They did, however, express the need to receive training so that their literature lessons could be enriched with media other than just print. They wanted to empower themselves so that they in return could empower their learners. This study aimed to be of assistance to the pedagogy of English Home Language and Additional Language literacy teaching so that using the moving image in teaching does not add to teachers' workload, but enriches lessons in such a way that both the teachers and learners can obtain productive outcomes. The research also established that technology can be infused in English literature classes in a way that does not interfere with the content pedagogy, but supports it in a way that actively involves learners and prepares them with the technical and pedagogical skills for creating the new learner-centred classroom.