Modeling Driver Behavior at Signalized Intersections: Decision Dynamics, Human Learning, and Safety Measures of Real-time Control Systems
Ghanipoor Machiani, Sahar
MetadataShow full item record
Traffic conflicts associated to signalized intersections are one of the major contributing factors to crash occurrences. Driver behavior plays an important role in the safety concerns related to signalized intersections. In this research effort, dynamics of driver behavior in relation to the traffic conflicts occurring at the onset of yellow is investigated. The area ahead of intersections in which drivers encounter a dilemma to pass through or stop when the yellow light commences is called Dilemma Zone (DZ). Several DZ-protection algorithms and advance signal settings have been developed to accommodate the DZ-related safety concerns. The focus of this study is on drivers' decision dynamics, human learning, and choice behavior in DZ, and DZ-related safety measures. First, influential factors to drivers' decision in DZ were determined using a driver behavior survey. This information was applied to design an adaptive experiment in a driving simulator study. Scenarios in the experimental design are aimed at capturing drivers learning process while experiencing safe and unsafe signal settings. The result of the experiment revealed that drivers do learn from some of their experience. However, this learning process led into a higher level of risk aversion behavior. Therefore, DZ-protection algorithms, independent of their approach, should not have any concerns regarding drivers learning effect on their protection procedure. Next, the possibility of predicting drivers' decision in different time frames using different datasets was examined. The results showed a promising prediction model if the data collection period is assumed 3 seconds after yellow. The prediction model serves advance signal protection algorithms to make more intelligent decisions. In the next step, a novel Surrogate Safety Number (SSN) was introduced based on the concept of time to collision. This measure is applicable to evaluate different DZ-protection algorithms regardless of their embedded methodology, and it has the potential to be used in developing new DZ-protection algorithms. Last, an agent-based human learning model was developed integrating machine learning and human learning techniques. An abstracted model of human memory and cognitive structure was used to model agent's behavior and learning. The model was applied to DZ decision making process, and agents were trained using the driver simulator data. The human learning model resulted in lower and faster-merging errors in mimicking drivers' behavior comparing to a pure machine learning technique.
- Doctoral Dissertations