Isolation and Structure Elucidation of Anticancer and Antimalarial Natural Products
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As part of an International Cooperative Biodiversity Group (ICBG) program and a collaborative research project with the Natural Products Discovery Institute, twenty plant extracts were investigated for their antiproliferative and antimalarial activities. Bioassay guided fractionation of thirteen extracts led to the identification of three new antiproliferative compounds, ethyl leptaulosides A-C (5.1-5.3), six new antiplasmodial compounds, apoplanesiacarpan A and B (2.4-2.5), (±)-rhodomyrtosone F (3.1), (±)-calliviminone C (3.2), 3α-angeloyloxy-15-hydroxylabda-7,13-dien-16,15-olid-18-oic acid (4.1), 3α-angeloyloxy-15-methoxylabda-7,13-dien-16,15-olid-18-oic acid (4.2), and twenty-six known compounds. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by using a combination of 1D (1H and 13C) and 2D NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, UV, IR, CD, optical rotation, and chemical modifications. Compounds 5.1 and 5.2 showed moderate antiproliferative activity against the A2780 human ovarian cancer cell line assay with IC50 values of 3 uM and 10 uM, respectively. Compound 3.1 showed potent antiplasmodial activity with an IC50 value of 100 nM, while compounds 3.2 and 4.1 showed moderate antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 4 uM and 10 uM, respectively. The other compounds had IC50 values larger than 20 ug/mL, and were thus either inactive or only weakly active.
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