Conducted EMI Noise Prediction and Filter Design Optimization
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Power factor correction (PFC) converter is a species of switching mode power supply (SMPS) which is widely used in offline frond-end converter for the distributed power systems to reduce the grid harmonic distortion. With the fast development of information technology and multi-media systems, high frequency PFC power supplies for servers, desktops, laptops and flat-panel TVs, etc. are required for more efficient power delivery within limited spaces. Therefore the critical conduction mode (CRM) PFC converter has been becoming more and more popular for these information technology applications due to its advantages in inherent zero-voltage soft switching (ZVS) and negligible diode reverse recovery. With the emerging of the high voltage GaN devices, the goal of achieving soft switching for high frequency PFC converters is the top priority and the trend of adopting the CRM PFC converter is becoming clearer. However, there is the stringent electromagnetic interference (EMI) regulation worldwide. For the CRM PFC converter, there are several challenges on meeting the EMI standards. First, for the CRM PFC converter, the switching frequency is variable during the half line cycle and has very wide range dependent on the AC line RMS voltage and the load, which makes it unlike the traditional constant-frequency PFC converter and therefore the knowledge and experience of the EMI characteristics for the traditional constant-frequency PFC converter cannot be directly applied to the CRM PFC converter. Second, for the CRM PFC converter, the switching frequency is also dependent on the inductance of the boost inductor. It means the EMI spectrum of the CRM PFC converter is tightly related the boost inductor selection during the design of the PFC power stage. Therefore, unlike the traditional constant-frequency PFC converter, the selection of the boost inductor is also part of the EMI filter design process and EMI filter optimization should begin at the same time when the power stage design starts. Third, since the EMI filter optimization needs to begin before the proto-type of the CRM PFC converter is completed, the traditional EMI-measurement based EMI filter design will become much more complex and time-consuming if it is applied to the CRM PFC converter. Therefore, a new methodology must be developed to evaluate the EMI performance of the CRM PFC converter, help to simplify the process of the EMI filter design and achieve the EMI filter optimization. To overcome these challenges, a novel mathematical analysis method for variable frequency PFC converter is thus proposed in this dissertation. Based on the mathematical analysis, the quasi-peak EMI noise, which is specifically required in most EMI regulation standards, is investigated and accurately predicted for the first time. A complete approximate model is derived to predict the quasi-peak DM EMI noise for the CRM PFC converter. Experiments are carried out to verify the validity of the prediction. Based on the DM EMI noise prediction, worst case analysis is carried out and the worst DM EMI noise case for all the input line and load conditions can be found to avoid the overdesign of the EMI filter. Based on the discovered worst case, criteria to ease the DM EMI filter design procedure of the CRM boost PFC are given for different boost inductor selection. Optimized design procedure of the EMI filter for the front-end converter is then discussed. Experiments are carried out to verify the validity of the whole methodology.
- Doctoral Dissertations