The Genetic Basis of Phytate, Oligosaccharide Content, and Emergence in Soybean
Glover, Natasha Marie
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Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] is one of the U.S.'s most economically important crops due to the protein and oil content of seeds. The major storage form of phosphorus in soybean seeds is found in the form of phytate, but because of its negative nutritional and environmental impacts, seed phytate and raffinosaccharide content have been a recent focus of breeders and molecular geneticists. The soybean line CX1834 is a low phytate mutant known to have two low phytate QTLs on linkage groups (LGs) L and N. The first objective of this research was to determine the genetic basis of the low phytate trait in CX1834. By using the whole genome sequence, we identified two candidate multidrug resistance-associated (MRP) ABC transporter genes. Sequencing the genes from CX1834 and comparing them to the reference genome sequence revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MRP gene located on LG N (causing a stop codon), and a SNP mutation in the MRP gene located on LG L (causing an amino acid change from arginine to lysine). One major concern with low phytate soybeans is the low seedling emergence. The second objective was to undertake a population-wide study of emergence in the recombinant inbred population CX1834 x V99-3337, over two years and two locations. We found a positive correlation between phytate level and emergence, and that variation among year, location, genotypic class, year x genotypic class, and year x location interactions were significantly affecting emergence. V99-5089, in addition to being low phytate, has high sucrose and low raffinosaccharide content. This phenotype of V99-5089 has been previously determined to be due to a SNP mutation in its myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) gene located on LG B1. The third objective was to use the recombinant inbred population derived from CX1834 x V99-5089 to observe the combinations of all three mutations to see how the different alleles impact phytate and raffinosaccharide content. The individuals with all three mutations, as well as those with the two MRP mutations together had lower phytate than the other genotypic classes. However, these lines (all three mutations) had unexpectedly high stachyose.
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