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dc.contributor.authorHampton, Carolyn E.en_US
dc.date.accessioned2017-04-06T15:43:23Z
dc.date.available2017-04-06T15:43:23Z
dc.date.issued2010-08-10en_US
dc.identifier.otheretd-08222010-233008en_US
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/77170
dc.description.abstractEach year roughly there are roughly 40,000 traffic-related fatalities. Common roadside objects such as trees, poles, guardrails, embankments, culverts, and fences result account for roughly 46% of these fatalities. Efforts to reduce to injury risk and risk exposure in these crashes have been hampered by the difficulty in performing reconstructions. To address the need for accurate reconstructions in order to assess injury risk, a vehicle-specific stiffness database was added to the WinSmash reconstruction program. This single modification increased the average estimated delta-V by 8% and reduced error from 23% to 13% on average. A method to extend the WinSmash energy-based reconstruction approach to poles and trees that were damaged or broken was implemented to provide delta-V estimates for these crashes. The error of the pole and tree reconstruction component was roughly 44% but still represented a significant step forward for these crashes which previously could not be reconstructed. The use of strong-post w-beam guardrail along roadsides is the primary method by which exposure to risk is reduced. Efforts to model guardrails using finite element methods were hampered by the large number of unknowns and lack of knowledge about the sensitivity of the crash outcome to each variable. Through a parametric study the soil properties and rail mesh density were identified as the most significant influences in simulation outcome. This knowledge was applied to finite element models of damaged guardrail to identify when the damage compromises the guardrail ability to prevent risk exposure. Models of guardrail with rail deflection, missing posts, and missing blockouts identified rail deflection over 6 inches and any number of missing posts as hazardous conditions. The removal of a single blockout was found to be acceptable if not desirable. These findings have far-reaching implications. The enhanced WinSmash reconstruction program has been adopted by NASS/CDS to generate delta-V estimates used by researchers in all areas of transportation research. The identification of hazardous guardrail was of great interest to transportation agencies responsible for prioritizing and performing repairs of damaged guardrail.en_US
dc.language.isoen_USen_US
dc.publisherVirginia Techen_US
dc.rightsI hereby certify that, if appropriate, I have obtained and attached hereto a written permission statement from the owner(s) of each third party copyrighted matter to be included in my thesis, dissertation, or project report, allowing distribution as specified below. I certify that the version I submitted is the same as that approved by my advisory committee. I hereby grant to Virginia Tech or its agents the non-exclusive license to archive and make accessible, under the conditions specified below, my thesis, dissertation, or project report in whole or in part in all forms of media, now or hereafter known. I retain all other ownership rights to the copyright of the thesis, dissertation or project report. I also retain the right to use in future works (such as articles or books) all or part of this thesis, dissertation, or project report.en_US
dc.subjectroad departureen_US
dc.subjectWinSmashen_US
dc.subjectInjuryen_US
dc.subjectcrash reconstructionen_US
dc.subjectfinite elementen_US
dc.titleInjury Risk of Road Departure Crashes using Modeling and Reconstruction Methodsen_US
dc.typeDissertationen_US
dc.contributor.departmentBiomedical Engineeringen_US
dc.description.degreePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.namePh. D.en_US
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen_US
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen_US
thesis.degree.disciplineBiomedical Engineeringen_US
dc.contributor.committeechairGabler, Hampton Clayen_US
dc.contributor.committeememberMadigan, Michael L.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberHardy, Warren N.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberStitzel, Joel D.en_US
dc.contributor.committeememberDuma, Stefan M.en_US
dc.type.dcmitypeTexten_US
dc.identifier.sourceurlhttp://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-08222010-233008/en_US
dc.date.sdate2010-08-22en_US
dc.date.rdate2016-09-30
dc.date.adate2010-09-23en_US


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