Management strategy of landfill leachate and landfill gas condensate
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Studies were conducted to evaluate the impact of landfill leachate discharge on the operation of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs). Two aspects of interferences were found: one is UV quenching substances, which are bio-refractory and able to penetrate the biological treatment processes, consequently interfere the UV disinfection in WWTPs. The other one is organic nitrogen, which can pass the nitrification-denitrification process and contribute to the effluent total nitrogen (TN). Also, treatability study was conducted for landfill gas (LFG) condensate. In a laboratory study, leachate samples were fractionated into humic acids (HA), fulvic acids (FA) and Hydrophilic (Hpi) fractions, the specific UV254 absorbance (SUVA254) of the three fractions follows: HA > FA > Hpi. However, the overall UV254 absorbance of the Hpi fraction was important because there was more hydrophilic organic matter than humic or fulvic acids. It was found that the size distribution of the three fractions follows: HA > FA > Hpi. This indicates that membrane separation following biological treatment is a promising technology for the removal of humic substances from landfill leachates. Leachate samples treated in this manner could usually meet the UV transmittance requirement of the POTWs. Also, nitrogen species in landfill leachates under various stabilization states were investigated. Although the effect of landfill stabilization state on the characteristics of organic matter and ammonia is well documented, there are few investigations into the landfill leachate organic nitrogen under different stabilization stages. Ammonia was found to leach out slower than organic matter and can maintain a constant level within the first a couple of years (< 10 years). The concentration and biodegradability of organic nitrogen were found to decrease with landfill age. A size distribution study showed that most of organic nitrogen in landfill leachates is < 1 kDa. The protein concentration was analyzed and showed a strong correlation with the organic nitrogen. Different slopes of regression curves of untreated and treated leachates indicate that protein is more biodegradable than the other organic nitrogen species in landfill leachates. XAD-8 resin was employed to isolate the hydrophilic fraction of leachate samples, hydrophilic organic nitrogen was found to be more biodegradable/bioavailable than the hydrophobic fractions. Furthermore, biological and physical-chemical treatment methods were applied to a landfill biogas (LFG) condensate to explore the feasible treatment alternatives for organic contaminant and arsenic removal efficiency. Sequencing batch reactor (SBR) showed effectiveness for the degradation of organic matter, even in an environment containing high levels of arsenic. This indicated a relatively low toxicity of organic arsenic as compared to inorganic arsenic. However, for arsenic removal, oxidation-coagulation, including biological oxidation, conventional oxidation and advanced oxidation followed by ferric salt coagulation, and carbon adsorption were not effective for what is believed to be tri-methyl arsenic. Among these, advanced oxidation-coagulation showed the best treatment efficiency (15.1% removal). Only reverse osmosis (RO) could reduce the arsenic concentration to an acceptable level to meet discharge limits. These results implied high stability and low toxicity of organic arsenic.
- Doctoral Dissertations