Synergetic Attenuation of Stray Magnetic Field in Inductive Power Transfer
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Significant stray magnetic field exists around the coils when charging the electric vehicles (EVs) with inductive power transfer (IPT), owning to the large air gap between the transmitter and receiver. The methods for field attenuation usually introduce extra losses and reduce the efficiency. This study focuses on the synergetic attenuation of stray magnetic field which is optimized simultaneously with the efficiency. The optimization is realized with Pareto front. In this dissertation, three methods are discussed for the field attenuation. The first method is to tune the physical parameters of the winding, such as the inner radii, outer radii, distribution of the turns, and types of the litz wires. The second method is to add metal shields around the IPT coils, in which litz wires are used as shields to reduce the shielding losses. The third method is to control the phases of winding currents, which avoids increasing the size and weight of the IPT coils. To attenuate the stray magnetic field by tuning the physical parameters, the conventional method is to sweep all the physical parameters in finite-element simulation. This takes thousands of simulations to derive the Pareto front, and it's especially time-consuming for three-dimensional simulations. This dissertation demonstrates a faster method to derive the Pareto front. The windings are replaced by the lumped loops. As long as the number of turns for each loop is known, the efficiency and magnetic field are calculated directly from the permeance matrices and current-to-field matrices. The sweep of physical parameters in finite-element simulation is replaced by the sweep of the turns numbers for the lumped loops in calculation. Only tens of simulations are required in the entire procedure, which are used to derive the matrices. An exemplary set of coils was built and tested. The efficiency from the matrix calculation is the same as the experimental measurement. The difference for stray magnetic field is less than 12.5%. Metal shields attenuate the stray magnetic field effectively, but generates significant losses owning to the uneven distribution of shield currents. This dissertation uses litz wires to replace the conventional plate shield or ring shield. Skin effect is eliminated so the shield currents are uniformly distributed and the losses are reduced. The litz shields are categorized to two types: shorted litz shield and driven litz shield. Circuit models are derived to analyze their behaviors. The concept of lumped-loop model is applied to derive the Pareto front of efficiency versus stray magnetic field for the coils with litz shield. In an exemplary IPT system, coils without metal shield and with metal shields are optimized for the same efficiency. Both the simulation and experimental measurement verify that the shorted litz shield has the best performance. The stray magnetic field is attenuated by 65% compared to the coils without shield. This dissertation also introduces the method to attenuate the stray magnetic field by controlling the phases of winding currents. The magnetic field around the coils is decomposed to the component in the axial direction and the component in the radial direction. The axial component decreases with smaller phase difference between windings' currents, while the radial component exhibits the opposite property. Because the axial component is dominant around the IPT coils, decreasing the phase difference is preferred. The dual-side-controlled converter is applied for the circuit realization. Bridges with active switches are used for both the inverter on the transmitter side and the rectifier on the receiver side. The effectiveness of this method was verified both in simulation and experiment. Compared to the conventional series-series IPT with 90° phase difference between winding currents, stray magnetic field was attenuated by up to 30% and 40% when the phase differences of winding currents are 50° and 40°, respectively. Furthermore, an analytical method is investigated to calculate the proximity-effect resistance of the planar coils with ferrite plate. The objective of this method is to work together with the fast optimization which uses the lumped-loop model. The existence of the ferrite plate complicates the calculation of the magnetic field across each turn which is critical to derive the proximity-effect resistance. In this dissertation, the ferrite plate is replaced by the mirrored turns according to the method of image. The magnetic fields are then obtained from Ampere's Law and Biot-Savart Law. Up to 200 kHz, the difference of the proximity-effect resistance is less than 15% between calculation and measurement.
- Doctoral Dissertations