Green Small Cell Operation of Ultra-Dense Networks Using Device Assistance
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As higher performance is demanded in 5G networks, energy consumption in wireless networks increases along with the advances of various technologies, so enhancing energy efficiency also becomes an important goal to implement 5G wireless networks. In this paper, we study the energy efficiency maximization problem focused on finding a suitable set of turned-on small cell access points (APs). Finding the suitable on/off states of APs is challenging since the APs can be deployed by users while centralized network planning is not always possible. Therefore, when APs in small cells are randomly deployed and thus redundant in many cases, a mechanism of dynamic AP turning-on/off is required. We propose a device-assisted framework that exploits feedback messages from the user equipment (UE). To solve the problem, we apply an optimization method using belief propagation (BP) on a factor graph. Then, we propose a family of online algorithms inspired by BP, called DANCE, that requires low computational complexity. We perform numerical simulations, and the extensive simulations confirm that BP enhances energy efficiency significantly. Furthermore, simple, but practical DANCE exhibits close performance to BP and also better performance than other popular existing methods. Specifically, in a small-sized network, BP enhances energy efficiency 129%. Furthermore, in ultra-dense networks, DANCE algorithms successfully achieve orders of magnitude higher energy efficiency than that of the baseline.