Randomized Approach to Nonlinear Inversion Combining Simultaneous Random and Optimized Sources and Detectors
Sariaydin Aslan, S
de Sturler, E
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In partial differential equations-based inverse problems with many measurements, we have to solve many large linear system for each evaluation of the objective function. In the nonlinear case, each evaluation of the Jacobian requires solving an additional set of systems. This leads to a tremendous computational cost, which is by far the dominant cost for these problems. Several authors have proposed to drastically reduce the number of system solves by exploiting stochastic techniques [Haber et al., SIAM Optim., 22:739-757] and posing the problem as a stochastic optimization problem [Shapiro et al., Lectures on Stochastic Programming, SIAM, 2009]. In this approach, the objective function is estimated using only a few random linear combinations of the sources, referred to as simultaneous random sources. For the Jacobian, we show that a similar approach can be used to reduce the number of additional adjoint solves for the detectors. While others have reported good solution quality at a greatly reduced computational cost using these randomized approaches, for our problem of interest, diffuse optical tomography, the approach often does not lead to sufficiently accurate solutions. Therefore, we replace a few random simultaneous sources and detectors by simultaneous sources and detectors that are optimized to maximize the Frobenius norm of the sampled Jacobian after solving to a modest tolerance. This choice is inspired by (1) the regularized model problem solves in the TREGS nonlinear least squares solver [de Sturler and Kilmer, SIAM Sci. Comput., 33:3057-3086] used for minimization in our method and (2) the fact that these optimized directions correspond to the most informative data components. Our approach leads to solutions of the same quality as obtained using all sources and detectors but at a greatly reduced computational cost.