Design and Synthesis of Photoactive Metal-Organic Frameworks for Photon Upconversion and Energy Transfer Studies
Rowe, Jennifer Maria
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The synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties of three Zr-based Metalorganic frameworks (MOFs) assembled from 2,6-anthracenedicarboxylic acid (2,6-ADCA, 2,6- MOF) and 1,4-anthracenedicarboxylic (1,4-ADCA, 1,4-MOF), and 9,10-anthracenedicarboxylic acid (9,10-ADCA, 9,10-MOF) are described. The crystal structure of the 9,10-MOF was elucidated by synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis and is isostructural with the well-known UiO-66 framework. The 2,6-MOFs also form highly crystalline, octahedral-shaped structures and was characterized by PXRD. Le Bail refinement of the powder pattern revealed that the 2,6-MOF also has UiO-type crystal structure. Conversely, incorporation of the 1,4-ADCA ligand results in large rod-shaped crystals. The excited-state properties of the MOFs were examined using steadstate diffuse reflectance, steady-state emission spectroscopy and time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) spectroscopy and are compared to those of the corresponding ligand in solution. Both the unique fluorescent properties of the ligand as well as individual framework structure, result in distinctive luminescent behavior and dictate the extent of intermolecular interactions. Specifically, the 2,6-MOF displays monomeric emission with a fluorescence lifetime (t) of 16.6 ± 1.1 and fluorescence quantum yield (Ff). On the other hand, the 1,4-MOF displays both monomeric and excimeric emission, with corresponding lifetime values of 7.5 ± 0.01 and 19.9 ± 0.1, respectively and a quantum yield of 0.002 ± 0.0001. The propensity for photon upconversion through sensitized triplet-triplet annihilation (TTA-UC) was probed in the three anthracene-based MOFs. The MOFs were surface-modified with Pd(II) mesoporphyrin IX (PdMP) as the triplet sensitizer. Upconverted emission from the 9,10-MOF was observed, with a quantum efficiency (FUC) of 0.46 % and a threshold intensity (Ith) of 142 mW/cm2 . The variation of the spacing between the anthracene units in the MOFs was found to have significant impact on TTA-UC. As a result, upconverted emission is only displayed by the 9-10-MOF. The distance between anthracene linkers in the 2,6-MOF are too large for TTA to occur, while the short distances in the 1,4-MOF inhibit upconversion through competitive excimer formation. To further explore the effects of chromophore spacing on energy transfer processes, a series of zinc-based mixed-ligand MOF were constructed from Zn(II) tetrakis(4- carboxyphenyl)porphyrin (ZnTCPP) and pyrazine, 2,2′-bipyridine (pyz) or 4,4′-bipyridyl (bpy) or 1,4-di(4-pyridyl)benzense (dpbz), comprising ZnTCPP/Zn paddlewheel layers. Across this series, the porphyrin spacing was approximately 6 Å, 11 Å and 16 Å for pyz, bpy and dpbz, respectively. The photophysical properties of the MOFs were explored using stead-state diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and steady-state and time-resolved emission spectroscopies. Florescence quenching studies examined the correlation between porphyrin spacing and efficiency of energy transfer.
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