Despite extensive research, the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative Alzheimer's disease (AD) still eludes our comprehension. This is largely due to complex and dynamic cross-talks that occur among multiple cell types throughout the aging process. We present a mathematical model that helps define critical components of AD pathogenesis based on differential rate equations that represent the known cross-talks involving microglia, astroglia, neurons, and amyloid-β (Aβ). We demonstrate that the inflammatory activation of microglia serves as a key node for progressive neurodegeneration. Our analysis reveals that targeting microglia may hold potential promise in the prevention and treatment of AD.