Long Chain n-3 PUFA and Oleic Acid Modification Strategies to Enhance Fillet Quality in Tilapia, Oreochromis species
Chu, Hyun Sik Stephano
MetadataShow full item record
Tilapia are freshwater fish that have become important in aquaculture and as a stable global source of seafood due to their ability to thrive in different environments. However, tilapia are sometimes considered nutritionally undesirable due to their high n-6 to n-3 fatty acid ratios. A market study was conducted first to determine fatty acid compositions in tilapia fillets in different US markets. Then a research was conducted to enhance nutritional value of tilapia by improving the n-3 and oleic acid contents in fish fillets without compromising fish growth or feed conversion ratios. Feeds were formulated with combinations of high and low n-6, n-3, and oleic acid levels using soybean oil, fish oil, algae oil, and high-oleic sunflower oil. Then 12 diets, including a commercial diet, were assigned to 24 tanks, each with 25 tilapia per tank. A Recirculating Aquaculture System (RAS) was used to grow the fish for 8 weeks. Fatty acid compositions of tilapia fillets were determined and samples were vacuum packed and stored at -10oC and -20oC to test oxidative degradation and fatty acid compositional changes. The market survey data showed that there were significant differences in fatty acid composition, lipid content, and n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratios depending on the country of origin. Samples from USA had ideal n-6:n-3 ratios (1.3 ±0.85) while samples from Southeast Asia had higher n-6:n-3 fatty acids ratio (6.6 ±0.54). Algae oil incorporation significantly increased DHA level while fish oil incorporation significantly increased both EPA and DPA. High-oleic sunflower oil based diets improved oleic acid levels and reduced linoleic acid compared to the soybean oil based diets. Sensory evaluation indicated that lipid source did not significantly impact preference or overall fillet quality, including texture. Interestingly, a survey showed people were interested in value-added tilapia, and would pay up to 30% more for nutritionally enhanced fish compared to the $5.00/lb fresh fillet price currently available in supermarkets. There was no observable oxidation during long term frozen storage. The oxidation study proved that value-addition would not be compromised during the long term storage conditions, even under temperature abuse. It is possible to improve tilapia nutritional quality through diet to provide consumers with value-added products that maintain quality during frozen storage.
- Doctoral Dissertations