Temporal and Tissue Specific Changes in Expression of Nutrient Transporters and Host Defense Peptides in Young Broilers during Salmonella and Campylobacter infections.
Garcia, Javier Shalin
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Salmonella and Campylobacter are the leading causes of bacterial foodborne illness in the United States. Commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of poultry, Salmonella and Campylobacter may show little to no signs of infection in birds. The objective of this dissertation was to evaluate the influence on mRNA abundance of nutrient transporters and host defense peptides (HDPs) during a Salmonella or a Campylobacter challenge in young commercial broilers. Comparisons were made between non-challenged and challenged (106, 107, or 108 colony forming units of Salmonella or Campylobacter) broilers on expression of nutrient transporters and host defense peptides in the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum at various days after inoculation. During a Salmonella challenge, changes in mRNA abundance of nutrient transporters and avian beta-defensins (AvBD) vary by day, tissue and challenge dose. ZnT1 may play an important role during a Salmonella challenge as mRNA abundance of ZnT1 significantly increased (P<0.05) by day 7 in the 108 group compared to the control. Early changes in LEAP2 mRNA abundance were observed in the 106 group than the 107 and 108 groups. However, at a later time point post challenge, a lower abundance of almost all AvBD mRNA (P<0.05) was observed in the lower gastrointestinal tract especially in the 107 and 108 groups compared to the control group, indicating that the pathogen may be influencing intestinal expression of AvBD mRNA. In Campylobacter, analyses revealed that expression of zinc transporter 1 (ZnT1) increased (P<0.05) in the duodenum, ileum and ceca in the 106 group on day 7. An increase (P<0.05) in the expression of avian beta-defensins were observed on day 14 in the ileum and ceca in the 106 group compared to the control group. Pathogens like Salmonella and Campylobacter may have an influence on the mRNA abundance of nutrient transporters and HDPs. Manipulation of these genes may ensure the survivability of these pathogens. Through sequestration of nutrients, the pathogen would have the ability to colonize the host and replicate. However, it must evade the host immune system as well. The processing of infected poultry with these pathogens may lead to foodborne illness in humans. Further research is needed to investigate possible methods to counter the influence these pathogens have on host immunity genes.
- Doctoral Dissertations