Bond-Slip Monitoring of Concrete Structures Using Smart Sensors—A Review
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Concrete structures with various reinforcements, such as steel bars, composite material tendons, and recently steel plates, are commonly used in civil infrastructures. When an external force overcomes the strength of the bond between the reinforcement and the concrete, bond-slip will occur, resulting in a relative displacement between the reinforcing materials and the concrete. Monitoring bond health plays an important role in guaranteeing structural safety. Recently, researchers have recognized the importance of bond-slip monitoring and performed many related investigations. In this paper, a state-of-the-art review on various smart sensors based on piezoelectric effect and fiber optic technology, as well as corresponding techniques for bond-slip monitoring is presented. Since piezoelectric sensors and fiber-optic sensors are widely used in bond-slip monitoring, their principles and relevant monitoring methods are also introduced in this paper. Particularly, the piezoelectric-based bond-slip monitoring methods including the active sensing method, the electro-mechanical impedance (EMI) method and the passive sensing using acoustic emission (AE) method, and the fiber-optic-based bond-slip detecting approaches including the fiber Bragg grating (FBG) and the distributed fiber optic sensing are highlighted. This paper provides guidance for practical applications and future development of bond-slip monitoring.