## Compressible Lubrication Theory in Pressurized Gases

##### Abstract

Lubrication theory plays a fundamental role in all mechanical design as well as applications to biomechanics. All machinery are composed of moving parts which must be protected against wear and damage. Without effective lubrication, maintenance cycles will be shortened to impractical levels resulting in increased costs and decreased reliability. The focus of the work presented here is on the lubrication of rotating machinery found in advanced power systems and designs involving micro-turbines.
One of the earliest studies of lubrication is due to Osborne Reynolds in 1886 who recorded what is now regarded as the canonical equation governing all lubrication problems; this equation and its extensions have become known as the Reynolds equation. In the past century, Reynolds equation has been extended to include three-dimensional effects, unsteadiness, turbulence, variable material properties, non-newtonian fluids, multi-phase flows, wall slip, and thermal effects. The bulk of these studies have focused on highly viscous liquids, e.g., oils. In recent years there has been increasing interest in power systems using new working fluids, micro-turbines and non-fossil fuel heat sources. In many cases, the design of these systems employs the use of gases rather than liquids. The advantage of gases over liquids include the reduction of weight, the reduction of adverse effects due to fouling, and compatibility with power system working fluids.
Most treatments of gas lubrication are based on the ideal, i.e., low pressure, gas theory and straightforward retro-fitting of the theory of liquid lubrication. However, the 21st Century has seen interest in gas lubrication at high pressures. At pressures and temperatures corresponding to the dense and supercritical gas regime, there is a strong dependence on gas properties and even singular behavior of fundamental transport properties. Simple extrapolations of the intuition and analyses of the ideal gas or liquid phase theory are no longer possible.
The goal of this dissertation is to establish the correct form of the Reynolds equation valid for both low and high pressure gases and to explore the dynamics predicted by this new form of the Reynolds equation. The dissertation addresses five problems involving our new Reynolds equation. In the first, we establish the form appropriate for the simple benchmark problem of two-dimensional journal bearings. It is found that the material response is completely determined by a single thermodynamic parameter referred to as the "effective bulk modulus". The validity of our new Reynolds equation has been established using solutions to the full Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations. We have also provided analytical estimates for the range of validity of this Reynolds equation and provided a systematic derivation of the energy equation valid whenever the Reynolds equation holds.
The next three problems considered here derive local and global results of interest in high speed lubrication studies. The results are based on a perturbation analysis of our Reynolds and energy equation resulting in simplified formulas and the explicit dependence of pressure, temperature, friction losses, load capacity, and heat transfer on the thermodynamic state and material properties.
Our last problem examines high pressure gas lubrication in thrust bearings. We again derive the appropriate form of the Reynolds and energy equations for these intrinsically three-dimensional flows. A finite difference scheme is employed to solve the resultant (elliptic) Reynolds equation for both moderate and high-speed flows. This Reynolds equation is then solved using perturbation methods for high-speed flows. It is found that the flow structure is comprised of five boundary layer regions in addition to the main ``core'' region. The flow in two of these boundary layer regions is governed by a nonlinear heat equation and the flow in three of these boundary layers is governed by nonlinear relaxation equations. Finite difference schemes are employed to obtain detailed solutions in the boundary layers. A composite solution is developed which provides a single solution describing the flow in all six regions to the same accuracy as the individual solutions in their respective regions of validity.
Overall, the key contributions are the establishment of the appropriate forms of the Reynolds equation for dense and supercritical flows, analytical solutions for quantities of practical interest, demonstrations of the roles played by various thermodynamic functions, the first detailed discussions of the physics of lubrication in dense and supercritical flows, and the discovery of boundary layer structures in flows associated with thrust bearings.

##### General Audience Abstract

Lubrication theory plays a fundamental role in all mechanical design as well as applications to biomechanics. All machinery are composed of moving parts which must be protected against wear and damage. Without eective lubrication, maintenance cycles will be shortened to impractical levels resulting in increased costs and decreased reliability. The focus of the work presented here is on the lubrication of rotating machinery found in advanced power systems and designs involving micro-turbines. One of the earliest studies of lubrication is due to Osborne Reynolds in 1886 who recorded what is now regarded as the canonical equation governing all lubrication problems; this equation and its extensions have become known as the Reynolds equation. In the past century, Reynolds equation has been extended to include three-dimensional eects, unsteadiness, turbulence, variable material properties, non-newtonian uids, multi-phase ows, wall slip, and thermal eects. The bulk of these studies have focused on highly viscous liquids, e.g., oils. In recent years there has been increasing interest in power systems using new working uids, micro-turbines and non-fossil fuel heat sources. In many cases, the design of these systems employs the use of gases rather than liquids. The advantage of gases over liquids include the reduction of weight, the reduction of adverse eects due to fouling, and compatibility with power system working uids. Most treatments of gas lubrication are based on the ideal, i.e., low pressure, gas theory and straightforward retro-tting of the theory of liquid lubrication. However, the 21st Century has seen interest in gas lubrication at high pressures. At pressures and temperatures corresponding to the dense and supercritical gas regime, there is a strong dependence on gas properties and even singular behavior of fundamental transport properties. Simple extrapolations of the intuition and analyses of the ideal gas or liquid phase theory are no longer possible. The goal of this dissertation is to establish the correct form of the Reynolds equation valid for both low and high pressure gases and to explore the dynamics predicted by this new form of the Reynolds equation. The dissertation addresses ve problems involving our new Reynolds equation. In the rst, we establish the form appropriate for the simple benchmark problem of two-dimensional journal bearings. It is found that the material response is completely determined by a single thermodynamic parameter referred to as the eective bulk modulus. The validity of our new Reynolds equation has been established using solutions to the full Navier-Stokes-Fourier equations. We have also provided analytical estimates for the range of validity of this Reynolds equation and provided a systematic derivation of the energy equation valid whenever the Reynolds equation holds. The next three problems considered here derive local and global results of interest in high speed lubrication studies. The results are based on a perturbation analysis of our Reynolds and energy equation resulting in simplied formulas and the explicit dependence of pressure, temperature, friction losses, load capacity, and heat transfer on the thermodynamic state and material properties. Our last problem examines high pressure gas lubrication in thrust bearings. We again derive the appropriate form of the Reynolds and energy equations for these intrinsically threedimensional ows. A nite dierence scheme is employed to solve the resultant (elliptic) Reynolds equation for both moderate and high-speed ows. This Reynolds equation is then solved using perturbation methods for high-speed ows. It is found that the ow structure is comprised of ve boundary layer regions in addition to the main core region. The ow in two of these boundary layer regions is governed by a nonlinear heat equation and the ow in three of these boundary layers is governed by nonlinear relaxation equations. Finite dierence schemes are employed to obtain detailed solutions in the boundary layers. A composite solution is developed which provides a single solution describing the ow in all six regions to the same accuracy as the individual solutions in their respective regions of validity. Overall, the key contributions are the establishment of the appropriate forms of the Reynolds equation for dense and supercritical ows, analytical solutions for quantities of practical interest, demonstrations of the roles played by various thermodynamic functions, the rst detailed discussions of the physics of lubrication in dense and supercritical ows, and the discovery of boundary layer structures in ows associated with thrust bearings.

##### Collections

- Doctoral Dissertations [15822]

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