Effects of internal electrode cooling on irreversible electroporation using a perfused organ model
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Purpose: This study evaluates the effects of active electrode cooling, via internal fluid circulation, on the irreversible electroporation (IRE) lesion, deployed electric current and temperature changes using a perfused porcine liver model. Materials and methods: A bipolar electrode delivered IRE electric pulses with or without activation of internal cooling to nine porcine mechanically perfused livers. Pulse schemes included a constant voltage, and a preconditioned delivery combined with an arc-mitigation algorithm. After treatment, organs were dissected, and treatment zones were stained using triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) to demonstrate viability. Results: Thirty-nine treatments were performed with an internally cooled applicator and 21 with a non-cooled applicator. For the constant voltage scenario, the average final electrical current measured was 26.37 and 29.20 A for the cooled and uncooled electrodes respectively (p≤.001). The average final temperature measured was 33.01 and 42.43 °C for the cooled and uncooled electrodes respectively (p≤.0001). The average measured ablations (fixed lesion) were 3.88-by-2.08 cm and 3.86-by-2.12 cm for the cooled and uncooled electrode respectively (p≤.2495, p≤.7507). Similarly, the preconditioned/arc-mitigation scenario yielded an average final electrical current measurement of a 41.07 and 47.20 A for the cooled and uncooled electrodes respectively (p≤.0001). The average final temperature measured was 34.93 and 44.90 °C for the cooled and uncooled electrodes respectively (p≤.0001). The average measured ablations (fixed lesion) were 3.67-by-2.27 cm and 3.58-by-2.09 cm for the cooled and uncooled applicators ((p≤.7906; p≤.5595)). Conclusions: The internally-cooled bipolar applicator offers advantages that could improve clinical outcomes. Thermally mitigating internal perfusion technology reduced tissue temperatures and electric current while maintaining similar lesion sizes. © 2018, © 2018 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.