Smart Additive Manufacturing Using Advanced Data Analytics and Closed Loop Control
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Additive manufacturing (AM) is a powerful emerging technology for fabrication of components with complex geometries using a variety of materials. However, despite promising potential, due to the complexity of the process dynamics, how to ensure product quality and consistency of AM parts efficiently during the process still remains challenging. Therefore, the objective of this dissertation is to develop effective methodologies for online automatic quality monitoring and improvement, i.e., to build a basis for smart additive manufacturing. The fast-growing sensor technology can easily generate a massive amount of real-time process data, which provides excellent opportunities to address the barriers of online quality assurance in AM through data-driven perspectives. Although this direction is very promising, the online sensing data typically have high dimensionality and complex inherent structure, which causes the tasks of real-time data-driven analytics and decision-making to be very challenging. To address these challenges, multiple data-driven approaches have been developed in this dissertation to achieve effective feature extraction, process modeling, and closed-loop quality control. These methods are successfully validated by a typical AM process, namely, fused filament fabrication (FFF). Specifically, four new methodologies are proposed and developed as listed below, (1) To capture the variation of hidden patterns in sensor signals, a feature extraction approach based on spectral graph theory is developed for defect detection in online quality monitoring of AM. The most informative feature is extracted and integrated with a statistical control chart, which can effectively detect the anomalies caused by cyber-physical attack. (2) To understand the underlying structure of high dimensional sensor data, an effective dimension reduction method based on an integrated manifold learning approach termed multi-kernel metric learning embedded isometric feature mapping (MKML-ISOMAP) is proposed for online process monitoring and defect diagnosis of AM. Based on the proposed method, process defects can be accurately identified by supervised classification algorithms. (3) To quantify the layer-wise quality correlation in AM by taking into consideration of reheating effects, a novel bilateral time series modeling approach termed extended autoregressive (EAR) model is proposed, which successfully correlates the quality characteristics of the current layer with not only past but also future layers. The resulting model is able to online predict the defects in a layer-wise manner. (4) To achieve online defect mitigation for AM process, a closed-loop quality control system is implemented using an image analysis-based proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, which can mitigate the defects by adaptively adjusting machine parameters during the printing process in a timely manner. By fully utilizing the online sensor data with innovative data analytics and closed-loop control approaches, the above-proposed methodologies are expected to have excellent performance in online quality assurance for AM. In addition, these methodologies are inherently integrated into a generic framework. Thus, they can be easily transformed for applications in other advanced manufacturing processes.
General Audience Abstract
Additive manufacturing (AM) technology is rapidly changing the industry; and online sensor-based data analytics is one of the most effective enabling techniques to further improve AM product quality. The objective of this dissertation is to develop methodologies for online quality assurance of AM processes using sensor technology, advanced data analytics, and closed-loop control. It aims to build a basis for the implementation of smart additive manufacturing. The proposed new methodologies in this dissertation are focused to address the quality issues in AM through effective feature extraction, advanced statistical modeling, and closed-loop control. To validate their effectiveness and efficiency, a widely used AM process, namely, fused filament fabrication (FFF), is selected as the experimental platform for testing and validation. The results demonstrate that the proposed methods are very promising to detect and mitigate quality defects during AM operations. Consequently, with the research outcome in this dissertation, our capability of online defect detection, diagnosis, and mitigation for the AM process is significantly improved. However, the future applications of the accomplished work in this dissertation are not just limited to AM. The developed generic methodological framework can be further extended to many other types of advanced manufacturing processes.
- Doctoral Dissertations