Reprogramming macrophage orientation by microRNA 146b targeting transcription factor IRF5
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The regulation of macrophage orientation pathological conditions is important but still incompletely understood. Here, we show that IL-10 and Rag1 double knockout mice spontaneously develop colitis with dominant M1 macrophage phenotype, suggesting that IL-10 regulates macrophage orientation in inflammation. We demonstrate that IL-10 stimulation induced miR-146b expression, and that the expression of miR-146b was impaired in IL-10 deficient macrophages. Our data show that miR-146b targets IRF5, resulting in the regulation of macrophage activation. Furthermore, miR-146b deficient mice developed intestinal inflammation with enhanced M1 macrophage polarization. Finally, miR-146b mimic treatment significantly suppresses M1 macrophage activation and ameliorates colitis development in vivo. Collectively, the results suggest that IL-10 dependent miR-146b plays an important role in the modulation of M1 macrophage orientation. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.