Thermoviscoelastic characterization and predictions of Kelvar/epoxy composite laminates
This study consisted of two main parts, the thermoviscoelastic characterization of Kevlar 49/Fiberite 7714A epoxy composite lamina and the development of a numerical procedure to predict the viscoelastic response of any general laminate constructed from the same material. The four orthotropic material properties, S₁₁, S₁₂, S₂₂, and S₆₆, were characterized by 20 minute static creep tests on unidirectional (₈, ₈, and ₁₆) lamina specimens. The Time-Temperature-Superposition-Principle (TTSP) was used successfully to accelerate the characterization process. A nonlinear constitutive model was developed to describe the stress dependent viscoelastic response for each of the material properties.
A new numerical procedure to predict long term laminate properties from lamina properties (obtained experimentally) was developed. Numerical instabilities and time constraints associated with viscoelastic numerical techniques were discussed and solved. The numerical procedure was incorporated into a user friendly microcomputer program called Viscoelastic Composite Analysis Program (VCAP), which is available for IBM ‘PC’ type computers. The program was designed for ease of use and includes graphics, menus, help messages, etc. The final phase of the study involved testing actual laminates constructed from the characterized material, Kevlar/epoxy, at various temperature and load levels for 4 to 5 weeks. These results were then compared with the VCAP program predictions to verify the testing procedure (i.e., the applicability of TTSP in characterizing composite materials) and to check the numerical procedure used in the program. The actual tests and predictions agreed, within experimental error and scatter, for all test cases which included 1, 2, 3, and 4 fiber direction laminates.
The end result of the study was the development and validation of a user friendly microcomputer program that can be used by design engineers in industry to predict thermoviscoelastic properties of orthotropic composite materials.