Characterization of fungicide resistance in grape powdery and downy mildew using field trials, bioassays, genomic, and transcriptomic approaches: quinoxyfen, phosphite, and mandipropamid
Development of fungicide resistance in fungal and oomycete pathogens is a serious problem in grape production. Quinoxyfen is a fungicide widely used against grape powdery mildew (Erysiphe necator). In 2013, E. necator isolates with reduced quinoxyfen sensitivity (designated as quinoxyfen lab resistance or QLR) were detected in Virginia. Field trials were conducted in 2014, 2015, and 2016 at the affected vineyard to determine to what extent quinoxyfen might still contribute to disease control. Powdery mildew control by quinoxyfen was good, similar to, or only slightly less, than that provided by myclobutanil and boscalid in all three years. The frequency of QLR in vines not treated with quinoxyfen declined only slowly over the three years, from 65% to 46%. Information about the mode of action of quinoxyfen is limited; previous research suggests that quinoxyfen interferes with the signal transduction process. We profiled the transcriptomes of QLR and sensitive isolates in response to quinoxyfen treatment, providing support for this hypothesis. Additional transcriptional targets of quinoxyfen were revealed to be involved in the positive regulation of the MAPK signaling cascade, pathogenesis, and sporulation activity. Grape downy mildew (Plasmopara viticola), another important grape pathogen, is commonly controlled by phosphite fungicides. A field trial and laboratory bioassays were conducted to determine whether P. viticola isolates from vineyards with suspected control failures showed reduced sensitivity against phosphite fungicides. Prophyt applied at 14-day intervals under high disease pressure provided poor downy mildew control in the field. Next-generation sequencing technologies were utilized to identify 391,930 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and generated a draft P. viticola genome assembly at ~130 megabase (Mb). Finally, field isolates of P. viticola collected from a Virginia vineyard with suspected mandipropamid control failure were bioassayed. The EC50 values of the isolates were >240 μg.ml-1 for mandipropamid, well above the field rate. The PvCesA3 gene of two resistant isolates was sequenced revealing that these isolates had a GGC-to-AGC substitution at codon 1105, the same mutation that has been found associated with CAA resistance elsewhere.