Modeling the Effects of Perceived Intuitiveness and Urgency of Various Auditory Warnings on Driver Takeover Performance in Automated Vehicles


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Existing driver models mainly account for drivers’ responses to visual cues in manually controlled vehicles. The present study is one of the few attempts to model drivers’ responses to auditory cues in automated vehicles. It developed a mathematical model to quantify the effects of characteristics of auditory cues on drivers’ response to takeover requests in automated vehicles. The current study enhanced queuing network-model human processor (QN-MHP) by modeling the effects of different auditory warnings, including speech, spearcon, and earcon. Different levels of intuitiveness and urgency of each sound were used to estimate the psychological parameters, such as perceived trust and urgency. The model predictions of takeover time were validated via an experimental study using driving simulation with resultant R squares of 0.925 and root-mean-square-error of 73 ms. The developed mathematical model can contribute to modeling the effects of auditory cues and providing design guidelines for standard takeover request warnings for automated vehicles.



Social Sciences, Science & Technology, Technology, Psychology, Applied, Transportation, Psychology, QN-MHP, Human performance modeling, Takeover request, Auditory warning, Speech, Non-speech, Spearcon, Driver model, driver performance, INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES, COGNITIVE CONTROL, INTEGRATED MODEL, REACTION-TIME, TASK, ARCHITECTURE, DISTRACTION, MECHANISMS, TRUST, 33 Built Environment and Design, 35 Commerce, Management, Tourism and Services, 5205 Social and Personality Psychology, 3509 Transportation, Logistics and Supply Chains, 52 Psychology, 3304 Urban and Regional Planning