A Role for Microglia Activation in Modulating Behavior in a Variable Stress Model for Depression

dc.contributor.authorTsyglakova, Mariyaen
dc.contributor.committeechairHodes, Georgia E.en
dc.contributor.committeememberTheus, Michelle H.en
dc.contributor.committeememberChiu, Pearl H.en
dc.contributor.committeememberFox, Michael A.en
dc.contributor.departmentGraduate Schoolen
dc.date.accessioned2022-06-24T08:00:52Zen
dc.date.available2022-06-24T08:00:52Zen
dc.date.issued2022-06-23en
dc.description.abstractMajor Depressive Disorder is a common mood disorder, affecting more than 300 million people worldwide. Stress, being a potent trigger for various mood disorders, including depression, affects both the peripheral and central immune systems. Microglia are the resident immune cells in the brain and changes in their morphology and state of activation in response to stress have been reported in a number of brain regions, however most studies examined only male subjects. In our studies we investigated morphological changes in microglia in the nucleus accumbens and subregions of the hippocampus in both male and female mice following variable stress. Our findings demonstrate that following 6 days of variable stress female microglia acquire a more activated phenotype compared to microglia in males. These sex specific effects in microglia activation were also observed in the nucleus accumbes, but not the dentate gyrus after 28 days of stress. Utilizing a number of pharmacological agents, we further investigated whether changes in the inflammatory states of microglia modulate behavior in female mice in a variable stress model for depression. We found that rosiglitazone, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma PPAR) agonist, which causes microglial shift to an anti-inflammatory state, conferred social resilience in female mice after 6 days of variable stress. We further demonstrated that blocking pro-inflammatory activation of microglia with minocycline, a tetracyclic antibiotic, did not prevent the stress effects on behavior. Surprisingly, prior pro-inflammatory activation of microglia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an endotoxin from gram-negative bacteria, was protective against subsequent variable stress. Finally, I describe the impact of systemic application of these drugs on microglia morphology and activation state, and cytokine levels in the nucleus accumbens of female mice. Taken together this body of work contributes to a growing number of studies demonstrating neuro-immune mechanisms associated with depression.en
dc.description.abstractgeneralMajor Depressive Disorder is a debilitating mood disorder, affecting more than 300 million people worldwide. The prevalence of MDD is higher in women than men, and women make up a higher percentage of patients with treatment resistant depression. Furthermore, men and women, diagnosed with depression, experience different symptoms, suggesting there might be sex specific mechanisms in susceptibility and development of depression. Stress, being a potent trigger for various mood disorders, including depression, affects both the peripheral and central immune systems, including microglia, the resident immune cells of the brain. In this work, I investigated the impact of stress on microglia activation in the nucleus accumbens and hippocampus, brain regions associated with depression, and found sex differences in activation of microglia following variable stress. To further understand the role of microglial in development of depression we conducted a number of different experiments, pharmacologically manipulating the activation state of microglia in the nucleus accumbens in female mice. We found that shifting microglia to an anti-inflammatory state promoted social resilience in female mice after 6 days of variable stress. We further demonstrated that blocking pro-inflammatory activation of microglia did not prevent the stress effects on behavior. Surprisingly, prior pro-inflammatory activation of microglia was protective against subsequent variable stress. Taken together this work contributes to a growing number of studies demonstrating neuro-immune mechanisms associated with depression.en
dc.description.degreeDoctor of Philosophyen
dc.format.mediumETDen
dc.identifier.othervt_gsexam:35137en
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10919/110922en
dc.language.isoenen
dc.publisherVirginia Techen
dc.rightsIn Copyrighten
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/en
dc.subjectdepressionen
dc.subjectstressen
dc.subjectmicrogliaen
dc.titleA Role for Microglia Activation in Modulating Behavior in a Variable Stress Model for Depressionen
dc.typeDissertationen
thesis.degree.disciplineTranslational Biology, Medicine and Healthen
thesis.degree.grantorVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State Universityen
thesis.degree.leveldoctoralen
thesis.degree.nameDoctor of Philosophyen
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