Neosporosis, Toxoplasmosis, and Sarcocystosis in Ruminants: An Update
Neospora caninum, Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp. are related Apicomplexan parasites that have 2 hosts in their life cycles. The definitive hosts excrete unsporulated (Neospora caninum, T gondii) or sporulated (Sarcocystis spp.) oocysts in their feces after ingesting tissue cysts from the tissues of ruminant intermediate hosts. These coccidians can cause abortion and neonatal mortality in ruminants. T gondii and Sarcocystis hominis (from cattle) are zoonotic. This article reviews information on the etiology, life cycle, diagnosis, control and prevention of these parasites and the diseases they cause in ruminants.